Against this backdrop, the presentation explores methods for optimal stimuli selection in the risky choice paradigm. This is achieved by adopting a parameter space perspective of the stimuli. Fitting Cumulative Prospect Theory to the resultant data shows how this method can be used to decrease modeling errors by, for example, reducing parameter interactions. Various extensions to the technique and the possibility of testing Utility Theories for criterion validity are discussed.
The view of a unitary and general cognitive control system has been under scrutiny in recent years. In particular, assumptions related to the unity and generality of the system have been seriously challenged. In the present symposium a sample of the current research will be offered. The neural mechanisms associated to particular processes of control will be approached by the last two speakers.
Blais, Chris H. How control is exerted over the myriad of cognitive operations we have at our disposal and the implementation of that control in the brain has become a major focus for researchers. A popular index of this form of cognitive control is the proportion congruent effect in the Stroop task where the magnitude of the Stroop effect increases as the proportion of congruent trials increases.
The implications of this result on the conflict monitoring hypothesis are discussed. We present relevant dissociations between Gratton and Proportion Congruent effects regarding their ability to generalize across variations in conflict type. We found that conflict adaptation was highly specific to the type of conflict solved on the previous trial. By contrary, the effect of conflict context generalized across conflict types. This finding suggests the existence of two separate control systems, one transient and responsible of online regulation, and the other sustained and responsible of conflict context effects.
Milliken, Bruce Dept. Here, we suggest that cognitive control itself can be imparted through memory retrieval. Correa, Angel Dept. Does our brain comprise a single executive control mechanism, which is commonly triggered when anticipating conflict proactive control and reacting to conflict reactive control? Proactive control involved anticipating conflict through predictive cues. Reactive control involved experiencing conflict in previous trials sequential effects. The results showed that proactive control reduced the N2 latency, whereas reactive control attenuated the N2 amplitude over right frontal electrodes.
These findings suggest that proactive and reactive control involve partly dissociable neural mechanisms. Ruz, Maria Dept. We investigated the neural mechanisms that prepare for future task requirements. Participants were cued to perform different tasks with words. Such preparatory states were different depending of whether they required or not a switch from the previous task. Although much is known about the psychology of decision making, the development of precise computational models of decision behaviour has only recently begun to make a significant impact in the field.
It has been widely assumed that people possess a strategy repertoire for inferences. The theory holds that individuals select strategies proportional to their subjective expectations of how well the strategies solve particular problems and the expectations are updated by reinforcement learning. The theory is compared to a connectionist network, whose weights are modified by error correction learning. Both theories were tested against each other experimentally and the strategy selection learning theory was best in describing the observed learning processes.
Speekenbrink, Maarten Dept. When learning to make decisions, we must infer how the outcome of our actions depends on the state of the environment. Typically, research investigating decision learning has used stationary environments, in which this dependence is invariant over time. We present research which shows participants quickly adapt to changes in the environmental structure, and discuss formal models of how they might do so.
Meeter, Maarten Dept. In probabilistic categorization tasks various cues are probabilistically but not perfectly predictive of class membership. Analysis methods based on these conceptualizations can be used to predict responses of categorizers from their responses on preceding trials. Here, we investigate whether categorizers on such trials really produce essentially random responses, or whether there are regularities that are not yet captured by learning theories.
Bogacz, Rafal Dept. Almost a half century ago, it has been proposed that during simple choice between two alternatives the brain performs a statistically optimal test. This theory, currently known as the diffusion model, describes very well reaction times and accuracies in two alternative choice tasks. It has been recently proposed that the circuit involving the cortex and the basal ganglia performs statistically optimal choice between multiple alternatives. This model helps understand current data and generates experimental predictions concerning both neurobiology and behaviour.
Furthermore, it supplies a bridge between the two disciplines, as it offers a possible neural implementation for the diffusion model. While the capacity constraints of controlled cognitive processing has served as a general rationale for several influential research programs on simplifying heuristics in research on judgment and decision making, detailed explorations of the consequences of these capacity constraints remain rather unusual. Kossowska et al. Golec et all. Kossowska, Malgorzata Inst.
Perception of outgroup members is usually seen as important determinants of conflict development and conflict escalation. It is assumed that these emotions should interact with RWA and SDO in different ways and therefore should have different effects on the level of prejudice.
In line with recent work, we also expected that these interaction effects would depend on the perceived status of the outgroups. The results of the research will be discussed due to possible ways of conflict reduction. In a number of studies, conducted in different countries Poland, the U. In mortality salience conditions, people with ethnocentric beliefs support war on terrorism and the Arab world.
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Paez, Dario Dept. Societal data was analyzed on the effects of Truth an Reconciliation Commissions on indexes of social and emotional climate. A two presence of apologies versus absence between subjects design of independent measures was used. Also, salience of apologies was supposed to reinforce universal values, social cohesion and a better emotional climate as well as collective guilt and shame. Collective and experimental findings are discussed in relation to the role of rituals of expiation, repentance and collective guilt on the political processes of reconciliation.
According to some normative theories of democracy, the existing discrepancies in interests, values, and action programs should be resolved not merely by power struggle but by rational analysis of differences in debates based on equality and mutual respect of the participants, that is by deliberative procedures. The question arises under what conditions political debate can meet the deliberative criteria? Theories and research in group behavior suggest that interpretation of the meaning of situation, social identity and group norms are critical factors.
The paper will present some specific hypotheses derived from social psychological research and will describe the results of an empirical study where groups of ordinary citizens as well as groups of politicians were trying to solve some ideological differences or conflict of interests existing between them. It was found that in most of the cases it was possible to reach satisfactory agreements in groups. The results of the experiment have some bearing on the problem of reducing antagonistic tendencies in groups.
It consists of 45 items divided in three subscales: a perception and understanding emotion, b expression and labeling emotion, and c managing and regulating emotion. At first, it was translated in English, and after that in several languages all ower the World. The results revealed that the best fitted model has two correlated factors. Developmental differences in the effects of emotional intelligence on academic performance were examined and compared with three habits: life, social, and study habits. Participants were 1, Japanese students. Higher correlations of emotional intelligence scores with academic performances were observed in the third, the fourth, and the fifth graders.
The results were interpreted as showing the importance of emotional control in learning setting in elementary school. However, it has been already translated into many languages. Psychometric qualities, structural equivalence and relations with several relevant constructs of translation and adaptation of the ESCQ for Argentina context is analyzed. Holmstrom, Stefan Dept. Several reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. Xu, Qinmei Inst. Results showed the internal consistency of the scale is 0. Item analysis indicated discrimination of each item was good.
But there were crossover between Perceive and Express. Taksic, Vladimir Dept.
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The scale is a measure of trait emotional intelligence and includes three subscales. Sufficient reliability for the total ESCQ score and subscales in all seven countries were found. Results showed significant differences in total scores of ESCQ and scores on all three subscales. The major difference was found in between scores in all European samples on one side, and Japanese sample on the other.
Gender differences emerged in Perceive and Understand emotions and Express and Label emotions subscales. Mohoric, Tamara Dept. Among these, ability to understand emotions is one that can be best measured with ability test. VET was translated in English and Swedish. Work plays an important role in the lives of people. It is true that apart from providing for the economic and social needs of the individual, work provides some personal values and psychological needs of many workers. Therefore, in this symposium, there will be an open discussion of the nature of work and how the characteristics of the work environment, often called organizational climate, have impacted on the commitment, involvement, motivation and satisfaction of workers from different nations.
The objective of the study was to assess the influence of personal and organisational factors on organisational climate in a large university setting. Data were collected from randomly selected staff of a large university in Uganda to assess role clarity, respect, communication, reward system, career development, planning and decision making, innovation, relationships, team work and support, quality of service, conflict management, commitment and morale, learning and training and direction.
Results indicated that sex had no effect on all organisational climate variables. Age, position and organisational tenure had significant effects on some of the variables. This study was aimed at investigating the effects of organizational climate on employees' commitment, involvement, motivation and satisfaction in some Nigerian manufacturing industries.
Data were collected from workers randomly selected from some food, shoes and textile industries in Lagos, Nigeria. The multiple regression analysis shows support for the hypotheses tested about the interaction among interpersonal, intergroup and organizational climate factors facilitating commitment, involvement, motivation and satisfaction among workers. The study investigated the link between organisational safety climate and perceived organizational support POS among Ghanaian industrial workers.
Additionally, it examined the relationship with job satisfaction, compliance with safety management policies, and accident frequency. POS was measured with the short version of Eisenberger et al. Workers with positive perspectives regarding supportive perceptions equally had positive perceptions on the safety climate scale. Additionally, they expressed greater job satisfaction, were more compliant with safety management policies, and registered lower accident rates. The perceived level of support provided in an organization, apparently, is closely associated with workplace safety perception and other organizational and social factors which are important for safety.
Understanding its specific functions is an ongoing challenge. This symposium will bring together a group of cognitive neuroscientists whose work has focused on the cingulate, to review current theories of the area's contribution to cognition and behavior. The relations among perspectives will be considered, as will fruitful directions for future research. Gehring, William Dept. Yeung, Nick Dept.
Activity within medial frontal cortex MFC has consistently been observed in two situations: with incorrect responses, and with competition between responses. When signal changes are recorded in the human anterior cingulate cortex ACC during choice behavior, their size varies with the degree to which the choice is unconstrained and with the importance of the outcome. A recent fMRI study suggests that ACC activity changes with the length of the reward history needed to determine the next choice. Such information is critical for setting the rate at which learning occurs.
Following ACC lesions, macaques show normal sensitivity to a decrement in reinforcement but the influence of the extended reward history on choice is diminished. According to one influential account, the anterior cingulate cortex ACC serves to monitor for conflicts in information processing. A current challenge is to discover how these perspectives might fit together within a larger account. I'll discuss the prospects for such a reconciliation.
The effect of this mechanism would be to bias behavioral decision making toward cognitively efficient tasks and strategies. Whether to persist with a course of action or switch to an alternative is a decision that foraging animals regularly face. Rats with ACC lesions show a bias away from persisting in effortful courses of action. Cultural psychological research has examined the processes of the social or cultural construction of the person including thoughts, emotions, motivation, development, identity, and other psychological constructs and for restructuring cultural processes that lead to better psychological functioning both at individual and collective levels.
This symposium aims at discussing some empirical research, from different cultural settings and using a variety of theoretical and methodological perspectives, to explore the relationship between culture and human functioning and to demonstrate applications of cultural psychology in education and human development while critically examining theoretical bases of this approach to suggest some shift in emphasis. This paper develops macro cultural psychology as a parsimonious, coherent theoretical framework that explains the cultural origins, characteristics, and function of psychological phenomena.
It uniquely defines culture as primarily consisting of social institutions, cultural concepts, and artifacts. I show how these macro cultural factors constitute the primary social origins, characteristics, and function of psychology. I explain how macro cultural psychology leads to reforming social institutions, artifacts, and cultural concepts. The scientific and political utility of the theory complement each other. Increasingly, national, professional and private points of reference dissolve into multiple and seemingly fluid relationships.
In the midst of such transformations, cultural psychologists are asked to—and could—play important roles. While striving to have an impact, cultural psychologists themselves face the challenge of keeping pace with constantly changing realities. In order to focus more strongly on the real world, they also need to overcome the constraints of cultural constructs such as national borders and academic disciplines. This presentation highlights, analyses and discusses some of the difficulties and pitfalls of international and interdisciplinary collaboration in cultural psychology.
Lecusay, Robert Lab. Cultural Historical Activity Theory CHAT is an interdisciplinary approach that emphasizes the primacy of social processes in human development. A key component of CHAT methodology is the design of activity systems around questions researchers wish to investigate. Researchers then participate in and simultaneously study these systems.
Though our analyses are grounded in concepts central to CHAT, we propose a multipespectival methodology that productively puts CHAT into conversation with complementary approaches from performance studies and distributed cognition. The paper illustrates theoretical and methodological applications of cultural psychology for developing culturally meaningful and effective intervention in an experimental program of multilingual education for Kond and Saora tribal children in primary grades in India.
Both critical reality and activity theory perspectives are applied for selection of curricular areas and designing of pedagogic practices for enhancement of children's achievements in school subject and social communicative skills. It also relies heavily on writing beliefs and affects. Any writing activity is always situated; it involves a dialogue between the writer and a potential reader.
Students conceptualize the reader while they write. In order to understand students' successive attempts at SR during the writing process it is essential to know the accessibility and use of various cognitive and affective strategies. The symposium focuses on the interplay between cognitive and affective strategies during SR writing and on the relations between the social and instructional context and students' strategy use.
Different SR strategies become the active manifestation of different motivational orientations for the task. Investigating the embedded meaning of SR strategies within motivational orientations is a methodological challenge. Writing has been traditionally considered an individual and cognitive activity that requires the management of the rhetoric problem as well as issues about planning, translating and revising.
We will examine the role that communicative situations, context, and interactions play in different models of SR and contrast definitions of writing context, writer's conception and activity, empirical methods, and units of analysis. Boekaerts, Monique Dept. Researchers in SR selected a limited set of constructs, measured them, and determined their effect on learning outcomes. This research did not reveal the essential links between the components of SR, mainly due to limitations in research methodology.
We explored the patterns of SR in the writing domain. To encompass the multiple facets of the SR of writing, we grafted the 6 component model on the writing domain and included numerous context variables. We used a predictive systems approach in the prediction of writing performance. The approach maximizes classification accuracy, and was able to model various outcome patterns from the students studied.
Techniques developed to explore the classification of students according to patterns detected by the predictive systems in students' individual characteristics will be presented. The implications for the application of these methods in educational studies will be discussed. These programs differ from each other in theory of change, intervention goals, target group, type of practitioners, design of evaluation, and outcome measures.
However, all programs shared an emphasis to prevent child problems by promoting the quality of parenting and family functioning. The different methods of working with parents will be addressed, as well as their practical implications for the implementation of programs in various countries. The discussion will address these points as well as the quality standards that should be met to improve program effectiveness. Objective: Study the effects of Triple P on behavioural and emotional problems in preadolescent children and parenting. Results: Analyses show positive results of Triple P with regard to all dependent variables.
Conclusions: Triple P has to be implemented in more Dutch cities as a parenting support program to prevent severe child problem behaviour and to prevent seriously inadequate parenting. Reichle, Barbara Educational Psychology, Univ. Results and conclusion. Repeated measures analyses of variance showed positive intervention effects on all variables except marital satisfaction. Sneddon, Helga Inst. To describe the Lifestart program and evaluation methodology.
The programme is open to all parents residing in project areas throughout Ireland. A 5 year evaluation of this programme is just about to begin using Randomised Control Trial RCT and qualitative methods. Conclusions: Outcome measures include child cognitive development, parenting knowledge, social support and psychological wellbeing.
Axberg, Ulf Dept. The Incredible Years is offered to parents whose children display severe disruptive behaviour problems.
Wednesday 23rd July 2008
Its aim is to promote positive parenting and reduce harsh punishment. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of the programme in Sweden. Method: Parents of 48 children aged 4—8 participated in the study. Final results will be presented and discussed. Rodrigo, Maria Jose Dept. The objective is to describe the program APF aimed at promoting parental competences and positive childrearing in families living under risky psychosocial conditions. Mode of implementation and program results are presented from the last community trial assessing the level of psychosocial risk, social support, and parental functioning.
Evidence was found that indicates positive program results on parental functioning and provides futures lines of improvement. This symposium focuses on the control of cognitive processes. To this end, international experts discuss how a more integrated conceptual framework for cognitive control can be advanced. Koch, Iring Inst. However, performance costs in a task switch suggest that cognitive control is prone to interference arising from competing tasks. The presentation focusses on the role of elementary learning and memory processes implied in cognitive task control.
To this end, we present an overview on recent empirical findings suggesting that internal task representations become associatively connected to external cues and stimuli. These findings raise the issue of the dynamic interplay between learning and cognitive control. Call, Josep Inst. Humans have evolved a notable ability to inhibit certain responses in favour of others to solve problems. However, it is unclear when this ability may have evolved. We investigated the evolution of inhibitory control by comparing seven primate species in three tasks.
One task required subjects to inhibit directly reaching for a visible reward, another required subjects to find a hidden reward and another required selecting the smaller of two quantities to net the larger one. I argue for a common denominator. It remains open as to whether development of this core ability is primarily driven by advances in executive control or in attributing mental states to self and others, as assessed by theory of mind tasks. Karbach, Julia Inst. Recent empirical findings suggest that the development of cognitive control abilities underlie different developmental trends throughout childhood.
The first aim of this presentation is to provide an overview of these findings, indicating that some cognitive control abilities are acquired relatively early in development, such as the ability to ignore irrelevant information, while others are acquired relatively slowly, such as the ability to maintain and to select relevant goals.
The second aim is to provide some evidence that language influences some of these cognitive control processes and serves as a useful tool to support the regulation of behavior, especially in childhood. Immature cognition during typical development is characterized by increased susceptibility to interference. In a series of behavioral and fMRI experiments, we investigated how the neural basis of different aspests of cognitive control such as interference control and response inhibition develops in healthy children and in children with ADHD or ASD.
Our results indicate some shared behavioral deficits across both disorders but distinct brain abnormalities associated with interference control and response inhibition in ASD and ADHD. Recent advances in developmental imaging indicate that these changes are associated with the maturation of subregions within the prefrontal cortex PFC , which each contribute to different aspects of control. Using fMRI, we investigated the role of different PFC regions when we adjust our behaviour on the basis of positive and negative feedback.
Results of two studies including over 90 participants show that medial PFC and lateral PFC have separate developmental timecourses and that young children use different strategies when learning from feedback. Neurotoxic chemicals have been shown to cause adverse health effects in occupational and environmental evaluations across the world.
This symposium will illustrate methods used in evaluating the brain function of both children and adults exposed to solvents, heavy metals and other chemicals. Intracellular systems in prenatal life and subsequent psychomotor and cognitive processes and functions in the brain are discussed as recent advances in the field of neurotoxicology. Attending this symposium will contribute to theoretical and applied knowledge on neurotoxicants and neuropsychological methodologies used.
Bowler, Rosemarie M. Selected neuropsychological tests are sensitive and specific to the evaluation of environmental or occupational exposures to neurotoxicants. Extensive research has been published reporting the use of neuropsychological testing in evaluating exposures of adults to organic solvents, pesticides i. Although evaluations of patients exposed to neurotoxicants traditionally requires a lengthy test battery, experience and knowledge gained in the field suggests the efficacious use of a shorter, test battery for adults.
This presentation will illustrate the use of clinical tests of cognitive, motor and mood function in a proposed environmental study. Viaene, Mineke K. Numerous industrial processes relay on organic solvents which causes substantial health problems in the work force. Although the acute neurotoxic potentials of most solvents were known for a long time, only recently investigations documented exposure causing an organic encephalopathy. In a group of 90 formerly exposed workers we demonstrated that even subsclinical effects on visuomotor function persist three years after exposure cessation.
This implies that neuropsychological tests can be used in secondary prevention. Motor functions improved, but visual functions decreased in relation to previous exposure. During recent year's substantial progress in neurotoxicology and neuroscience have been made. Cognitive processes and functions of the brain can be described at different levels of aggregation: cellular level, neurotransmitter systems, neuronal circuits, and brain areas.
Neurotoxic mechanisms have been identified on similar levels. These advances are not sufficiently linked with each other. More research is needed to bridge the gap between neurotoxicology and —psychology. The monoamine and intracellular calcium systems are two major elements of the nervous system functions. However, their role in human brain development is unclear.
Studies on association between the activity of these two systems during prenatal life and subsequent psychomotor performances are relevant. Prenatal factors influencing the monoaminergic and ATPases activities in the early psychomotor development of humans could be demonstrated. It is also suggested that specific psychometric measures such as fine motor tests may be a better developmental measurement to correlate with biochemical parameters than a general cognitive scales.
Findings support the use of Ca pump activity as a biomarker of calcium mediated toxicity related to environmental in utero exposures. Effective leadership is important for a group to achieve its goals in any cultural context, but what defines good leadership may show some drastic variation across cultures. Hofstede has identified power distance as an important dimension to characterize cultures, which refers to the extent to which hierarchies and inequalities are accepted in societies. This symposium explores the dynamics of leadership and power distance in several diverse cultural contexts, including Taiwan, Japan, Singapore, Italy, and the U.
In addition, using data from the GLOBE project, the relationships between power distance and leadership are explored in cultures around the world. Relational identity is significant in Chinese organizations. Finally, subordinates' powder distance played a moderating role in the relatonshps between relational identity and prosocial organizational behavior. Singh, Ramadhar Dept.
The status of people chair vs. Americans were harsher than Singaporeans or Japanese independent of the status of decision makers. However, situational correction was made in actions against the chair but not against the committee in both the cultures. Obviously, intuitive prosecutors are fair but softer toward leaders. The present research aimed to investigate which factors could be good sensors to detect the decreased motivation to work. Respondents of our panel survey were staff and managers in Japanese chain stores.
The questionnaire consisted of several scales, such as work attitude in the previous month, passion for work, perceived quality of working life, leadership structure, and implicit rules in a workplace. Preliminary results suggest that leadership structure i. Further results of longitudinal analysis in a workplace and comparative analysis across workplaces will be presented.
Borgogni, Laura Dept. SEM tested the hypothesized nomological net. This study points to the necessity of intervening on employees' perceptions of leadership at different levels for CE and OC enhancement. Dorfman New Mexico State University The objectives of this presentation are to explore the cultural effects of Power Distance on various aspects of leadership. The implications for managerial leaders and as yet unanswered questions will be discussed. Mismatch components auditory and visual MMN emerge whenever a stimulus violates the established regularities.
The function of such implicit memory systems will be discussed in relation to veridical perception and attentional processing. ERP research also indicates that visual stimuli are processed at semantic level by implicit memory systems. Data will be presented showing the implementation of the auditory memory system. We investigated the automatic and intentional encoding of abstract rules inherent in sound sequences. Initially, none of the subjects acquired explicit knowledge of the rule nor became aware of the presence of rule violations e.
Nevertheless, rules and their violations were automatically detected as revealed by the elicitation of the Mismatch Negativity MMN brain wave. It seems that this automatic encoding of rules partly governs the intentional encoding. In everyday life, multiple sound sources are active in the environment. The mixture of sounds arriving to the ears is sorted into coherent sound sequences auditory streams by heuristic algorithms, many of which require information about past behavior of previously detected streams. We suggest that this information is provided by implicit memory representations taking the form of predictive neural models, which have been established by extracting regularities from the auditory input.
These models also underlie the deviance detection process reflected by the mismatch negativity event related potential an electric brain response involved resolving competition between alternative sound organizations. Violation of regularities at multiple organizational levels and along every acoustic dimension elicits a distinct set of electrical brain responses, the hallmark of which is the mismatch negativity.
In this presentation, I will review findings concerning the intracranial sources of mismatch responses, from multiple imaging modalities, including inverse solutions of EEG and MEG data, hemodynamic measurements PET and fMRI , and particularly data from patients with circumscribed brain lesions. These data suggests that diverse brain regions support the mismatch response. As many influential demonstrations e. VMMN emerges to deviant stimulus features color, spatial frequency, motion direction, contrast , to the conjunction of features objects , and to sequential and temporal irregularities.
Pesciarelli, Francesca Cognition and Language Lab. An Attentional Blink paradigm was used to directly compare and contrast semantic and repetition priming to reported versus missed words. T1 was never related to T2 and T3, while, T2 and T3 were unrelated, semantically related, or identical. Whether or not T2 was reported, I observed both semantic and repetition priming of T3 in both report accuracy and certain ERP measures.
The results suggest that semantic and repetition priming appear to engage at least partially overlapping mechanisms. Within this symposium our goal is to emphasize the significance of evaluation in today's society, especially in the field of psychology. The symposium will promote the exchange of information and opinions among international evaluation experts.
Therefore the policy and practice of evaluation research in different countries will be reflected. Difficulties of applied evaluation research and answers to these problems will be discussed. In particular, specifics when doing evaluation in developing countries will be presented. Furthermore, the issue of educating evaluators will be raised. Randomized experiments constitute the gold standard for evaluating treatments and social programs.
These conditions include the measurement of all covariates related to treatment selection and outcome as well as sufficient overlap, i. Cook, Thomas D. This paper describes and critically analyzes the more recent evaluation philosophy and practice in international agencies dealing with developing nations, especially the World Bank and regional development banks.
An explanation is offered as to why this philosophy was adopted. The explanation emphasizes the perceived failure of strategies predicated on statistical adjustments for selection bias and the growing sense of the viability of experimental alternatives with which psychologists are familiar. This paper describes the — funding activities of the Institute for Education Sciences IES that are designed to privilege random assignment experiments in American educational research.
This priority is manifest in IEs' research grant programs, evaluation research activities, training programs, founding of a novel professional association, and recruiting psychologists and economists into education research. Although this agenda was initially met with resistance, the process of privileging experiments is now well underway. But will it outlast the Bush Administration, and be incorporated into university teaching curricula and the decisions of journal editors?
The education in evaluation has been part of the academic formation in psychology in Germany for two decades. With an increased demand on evaluators in various social fields in the last years a growing offer of master programs in evaluation emerged. In order to reveal the contents of a psychological based education in evaluation research a web based research of academic courses of 44 German institutes of psychology was conducted.
The significance of evaluation and its constant development require a continual dialogue between professionals involved in scientific evaluation, evaluation implementation, and commissioning of evaluation. Central aims of the DeGEval are: 1 professionalization of evaluation by e. Wundt pioneered both behavioral and cultural psychology. In retrospect, his principal objective of integrating them into an objective, generalizable, yet culturally sensitive science is a project in progress.
An ecological or cultural perspective requires direct inclusion or measurement of cultural and structural variables as well as functional relationships of psychological variables within a cultural system. In this symposium we address the contributions that emic studies with Hispanic populations living in the Americas have on the development of further theme selection, theory building, measurement issues, intervention strategies and evaluation.
In particular, suicide, family, children and self will be touched on. Two decades of national surveys conducted in the U. This paper presents theoretical explanations drawn from cultural psychology, female development, and family functioning. Findings from qualitative and quantitative analyses will be presented. Questionnaire data points to malalignments in the relationship between adolescent females and their parents, especially their mothers. Besides, universal instruments and definitions will be contrasted with the peculiarities found in our country. The development of assertiveness is a complex process which occurs through time and is linked to the developmental processes, inserted in a cultural context.
The objective of this research is to present studies used to elaborate a scale of measurement assertiveness for children, as well as to explore the relationship among coping styles, attachment styles, and the locus of control. In these studies, participated children from the city of Merida, Yucatan, Mexico, selected through a non probabilistic sample. The statistic analysis is presented for each one of them and the findings are discussed from the Mexican ethnopsychology.
Their seminal work helped spawn the 1st century of mental tests. Without doubt, the assessment of individual intellect has had a profound effect on psychology and education across the globe. As we begin the 2nd century of mental testing, a group of scholars from across the globe has been assembled to consider what we now understand about the nature of human intellect and individual achievement and its implications for theory and practice in the fields of psychological and educational assessment. However, the usefulness of these techniques is limited by the quality of assessment instruments that remain relatively divorced from theories of learning and performance.
This schism also leads to unfortunate practices in school systems and classrooms. This talk will describe a project being conducted at ETS that builds on advances in cognitive science, technology, and psychometrics to design a new approach to the assessment of student learning outcomes. There is appeal in the idea that assessment might support instruction, as well as measuring its effects, but to date the contribution of the psychometric community has been limited.
Diagnostic tests are relatively insensitive to instruction, provide instructional guidance that arrives too late to be useful, and are more focused on what students have not learned, rather than what might be done about it. New measurement approaches and technical developments assess the emergence of and the level of functioning of such cognitive functions through the understanding of the independent modules and their interactions, opening new possibilities in the assessment of mental functions, and the understanding of the role of consciousness and mental workspace in efficient information processing.
This paper will consider the implications of this research for educational assessment in the 21st century. It will be argued that a greater focus will be required on the use of assessments to explore and understand the learning progress of individuals.
The symposium concludes with an illustration of how research can and should inform efforts to develop and implement prevention programs. In recent years there has been growing attention to the importance of ensuring that psychological assessment instruments are firmly supported by scientific evidence. Finally, a case will be made regarding the pressing need for research evidence that addresses the clinical utility of psychological instruments.
Clinical case formulation is based on the assumption that, compared to standardized treatments, matching treatment mechanisms to causal relations for clients' behavior problems will result in enhanced treatment outcome. The arithmetic and conceptual models underlying the presumed benefits and challenges of clinical case formulation will be presented. Additionally, necessary research designs and data on the incremental outcome of clinical case formulation for several behavior problems focusing on severe behavior problems will be presented.
Johnston, Charlotte Dept. However, parents are frequently reluctant to use these treatments and prefer nonEB alternatives. We present studies examining parents' acceptability and use of these treatments. Parents see medication as less acceptable than behavioral treatment, despite acknowledging medication's greater effectiveness.
In addition, factors such as parents' beliefs about ADHD and attributions for child behavior predicted aspects of acceptability and adherence to these EB treatments. The implications for increasing parental uptake of EB treatments are considered.
Hunsley and Lee conducted a focused review of the treatment effectiveness literature published up until March A comparison of data from these studies to benchmarks from recent reviews of efficacy trials revealed treatment completion rates comparable to those found in the efficacy benchmarks. Moreover, in most instances, the improvement rates were comparable in effectiveness studies to those reported in randomized clinical trials of treatment efficacy. In this presentation, the review will be updated to include studies published between March and March Recommendations for practice and research will be presented.
School based health centers, early identification screening programs and curriculum based prevention programs are three of the most common delivery modalities for mental health problem identification and intervention in schools. Many of the challenges facing these various initiatives are systemic but may be resolved by embedding them within a health literacy framework emphasizing knowledge acquisition and by implementing these programs with interactive, internet based tools.
On average, more than two disasters occur everyday somewhere in the world. Natural disasters are most devastating in developing countries and cause widespread human sufferings. Following a disaster, survivors are plunged into psychological and physical sufferings. Survivors need psychosocial care and survival necessities to ameliorate their conditions. It further aims to focus on intervention strategies to ameliorate the trauma at individual level and the symptoms at community level.
Kar, Nilamadhab Dept. Disasters are traumas of such magnitude that the internal existing systems fail to cope with the effects. The paper discusses the conceptual framework of different phases relevant to psychosocial sequelae of disasters taking into consideration of manifestations and needs over a period of time.
A three phase study was conducted to understand the psychological aftereffects of the December 26, tsunami on children and adolescent victims primary and secondary. Initially, posttraumatic stress and emotional distress were measured in child victims. Finally, young volunteers who rushed to one of the sites as relief volunteers were studied. Females reported higher rate of symptoms in the affected group. The study examines the impact of resource loss and social support on disaster trauma of tsunami survivors. Data were collected through structured interview schedule 14 months after the tsunami from survivors in Nagapattinum district.
The postdisaster trauma was assessed using measures of posttraumatic stress, anxiety, and physical health symptoms. The results reveal that the loss of varied resources increases the postdisaster trauma. Increase in received social support enhances perceived social support and both decrease postdisaster trauma. The internal control, communal mastery, and coping style interacting with the extent resource loss and social support have buffered the postdisaster trauma. Disasters arrest the normal functioning at individual and community levels by causing unanticipated loss of material and human resources and creating health problems.
This presentation examines the various consequences of disasters at individual and community levels and efforts to cope and outgrow from the trauma. The results imply an urgent need to evolve culturally embedded comprehensive support systems in the developing countries like India which are becoming more vulnerable in the wake of population pressure, environmental hazards and inadequate technology. This study examines the occurrence of disasters, disaster trauma, causes of trauma, and intervention strategies.
In India, a disaster occurs in each eight days and natural disasters are most devastating. Disaster trauma manifests in cognitive, affective, behavioural, and physical symptoms. What causes trauma are the reactivation of disaster memory, resource loss, and inadequate social support. Certain personality characteristics and social support buffer trauma.
Intervention strategies are discussed to ameliorate trauma during different phases of natural disasters. The Godhra riots in witnessed about 1, deaths and large number of families were uprooted and forced to seek shelter in rehabilitation camps. The enormous pain and loss to people was not easy to overcome. Their intervention in managing emotions, anxiety, support, and lifestyle modification is presented and implications are discussed. The objective of this Symposium is to show the more relevant lines of investigation analyzing theoretical and practical perspectives about the prediction of sport and physical activity practice.
Concretely, in this symposium we present results of investigations that have applied different theoretical models that improve the understanding of the processes of acquisition of the exercise behavior. This presentation will focus on the nature of significant other influence on the physical activity and sport involvement of children and adolescents. The nature and type of significant other influence changes substantially according to the age and developmental status of the individual affected, and according to the context and meaning that characterizes the involvement.
Current methodological advances will also be discussed. Torregrosa, Miquel Psic. One hundred and twenty eight young soccer players competing in elite leagues participated in the study. Results show that elite youth players are both highly ego and task oriented, and that they show high levels of sport commitment. This study analyzes the relationships between the motivational climate, goal orientations, the assessment of physical education classes and the behavioral patters of healthy i.
Additionally, the assessment of the physical education classes predicts positively the practice of extracurricular sport activity and, such practice predicts negatively the consumption of drugs. Interactions between genes and childhood environments in human development have evoked increasing interest. Serotonin system has been suggested to have a special role in a development of personality.
Here, an effect of an interaction between serotonin system and childhood environment on adulthood temperament, depression, and attachment have been studied. The findings suggest an obvious role of serotonin in a development of human temperament, however so, that there mostly exists no main effect of serotonin on adulthood outcomes, but serotonin moderates a way how a person experiences his or her environment. In addition, adulthood attachment may be, at least partly, biologically rooted. Conclusions: Early temperament manifests itself in adulthood differentially, depending on genetic factors that regulate the serotonergic system.
Objectives: We tested whether the interaction between HTR2A gene and maternal life satisfaction affects child's later negative emotionality NE. Methods: The participants were participants from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study, being 3—18 years old, when their mothers' life satisfaction was measured. Participants' NE was assessed 12, 17 and 21 years later. Results: Mother's dissatisfaction was associated with child's higher NE, especially its anger component, among carriers of any T allele, but not among carriers of CC genotype.
Conclusions: Carriers of T allele are sensitive to environmental effects. Salo, Johanna Dept. Objectives: Tentative evidence shows that in addition to environmental effects, individuals may differ in their genetic susceptibility to form attachment bonds. Conclusions: Genes may directly influence the development of attachment, and increase vulnerability to environmental effects. Jokela, Markus Dept. Objective: To examine whether the TC polymorphism of the serotonin receptor 2A gene HTR2A moderates the association between maternal nurturance in childhood and adolescence, and reward dependence RD in adulthood.
The central angle of consideration is to find similarities phenomena found, intervention technologies implemented, etc. Adolescence is time, structural more than chronological, during which the subject confront to the interdiction to realise entirely and totally the desire. When use is impossible, then personal fall in value suicide, depression, etc. Podolskij, Andrei Dept. The purpose of the study is to construct and test the intervention program designed to decrease adolescent depressed mood and anxiety.
Theoretical and empirical sources of the intervention design are presented and discussed. An intervention program has been designed and implemented in accordance with those findings. The results achieved demonstrate strong and weak sides of the intervention program for junior and senior, male and female adolescents. Chirkov, Valery Dept. Children's perceptions of school environment will also be reported. Statistical analysis together with the qualitative analysis of the interviews was conducted to reveal direct and moderated relations among the variables.
Universal and specific regularities will be reported. The interdisciplinary approach to study immigrant youth will be strongly advocated. In this symposium, presenters will focus on the systematic distribution of romantic attachment styles and sexual strategies across cultures. This presentation will focus on the systematic distribution of romantic attachment styles across cultures.
But social constructionist themes can be and have been picked up by naturalists who hope to accommodate the interesting and important cultural phenomena documented by constructionist authors while denying more radical anti-scientific and anti-realist theses widely associated with social constructionism. I begin by discussing social constructionism, and I then discuss some threads of contemporary naturalism. I go on to consider two different sorts of objects of social construction—representations and human traits—and discuss naturalistic, constructionist approaches to them.
We can then think of different accounts of social construction as differing in their accounts either of the relation itself, or of one or both relata. While philosophers have carefully engaged various constructionist claims over the last several decades, much of the attention has been paid to various objects of construction e.
In contrast, comparatively little attention has been paid to distinguishing different sorts of agents of construction. Many of the agents in social constructionist claims can be neatly divided into two groups: those that view the agents as primarily impersonal agents, and those that view the agents as personal agents i. Work in the first group emphasizes a causal role for impersonal causes like cultures, conventions, or institutions in producing some phenomenon. For example, the claim that what we perceive is determined by our background theories emphasizes an impersonal causal agent—culture—in determining some phenomena.
Briner, Postman, and Rodrigues This view was subsequently taken up by a range of other authors across disciplines. Impersonal cultural accounts of construction are also found in explanations of nonrepresentational phenomena, for example, of sex-differentiated behavior. Here a core claim might admit that there is sex difference, but claim that the cause of difference is rooted in different conceptions of sex and the practices caused by those conceptions rather than biological facts see Feminist Perspectives on Sex and Gender.
A second group of constructionist claims emphasizes personal social agents that construct through their choices. Hacking Social constructionist claims are made about so many different objects that it is perhaps not surprising to find that such claims have different implications depending upon the different objects at which they are directed. Laudan , Nelson , Fine , Kukla This kind constructionist view contrasts with the view that human kinds or traits are to be explained in terms of non-cultural mechanisms — especially internal, biological or natural states of the organism.
The most pronounced disputes are prima facie concerned with whether the clustering of traits in, for example, sex difference, emotional behavior, or mental illness, are caused by a cultural practice of differentiating persons or are instead caused by natural processes operating in relative independence from culture. But this kind constructionist view has also especially in the philosophy of race come to contrast with the skeptical view that a kind does not exist.
In the context of race, constructionism amounts to the positive assertion that race is real even though it is not constituted by, or grounded in, biological facts such as genetic difference. See, e. We consider naturalistic approaches to the construction of representations and human traits in more detail below, but it is useful to first distinguish global constructionist claims that hold that every fact is a social construction, from local constructionist claims that hold that only particular facts are.
Boghossian , Kukla Philosophers may have focused on these more radical claims in part because of the recognition that, relying on something like the general idea of construction sketched above, claims that are relatively global in scope are quite provocative and surprising while claims that would count as locally socially constructionist are quite familiar in many areas of philosophy, perhaps most importantly in meta-ethics, aesthetics, and social ontology. The domain of social ontology is especially interesting because here many facts are widely recognized as social constructions: for example, facts about being a U.
Senator or a licensed dog are social constructions. But even local constructionist claims can be interesting to the extent that they try to show some object may be produced by unacknowledged social practices—when they are covert constructions. This is the role that they play in the philosophy of psychiatry Hacking a, Scheff , Showalter , cf. Griffiths , the philosophy of race e. Here the local claim that some kind for example mental illness , emotion , race , or gender is explained by received culture or practice retains its interest because it offers a metaphysical alternative to other explanations biological, religious, etc.
We have already suggested that the core idea of constructionism is that some social agent produces or controls some object. While different objects lead constructionist talk to be interpreted in different ways, we can distinguish two different sorts of relationship: causal or constitutive.cathecomploofound.gq/ranger-the-little-horse-with-the-big.php
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There is no special problem posed by the claim that human social and linguistic activities cause certain things to exist or persist, or cause certain facts to be. This suggests a relationship such as:. Consider the ways in which causal and constitutive claims might pull apart in a case of a socially produced artifact. Representations expressing the concept watch are normally causally necessary for some materials to come to have the intrinsic features of a watch, but they are not metaphysically necessary.
A similar idea has been influential in constructionist discussions. For example, the provocative claims that there were no homosexuals before the concept homosexual came to be expressed in Western culture in the nineteenth century e. Foucault , Halperin or that race is a modern invention e. But Searle is right that there is something remarkable here, at least in the case of social facts: somehow our conceptual scheme or practice are necessary to make it true that some event instantiates cocktail party or war.
What is wanted is, at a minimum, a model of this production—a model of exactly how the conceptual practice constitutes the fact. Perhaps the most obvious model to explain such constitutive claims is to hold that the relevant necessity is analytic , it holds in virtue of the meaning of the relevant term or concept. Instead, we should ask whether such model of constitutivity as analyticity is plausible for objects of social construction.
Naturalistic Approaches to Social Construction
On the other hand, this does not seem plausible for the objects of many social constructionist claims. Remember, it is a mainstay of constructionist research to claim that social influence is exercised in surprising and provocative ways, especially on objects that we take to be produced naturally. But just this feature suggests that it cannot be part of our ordinary concepts of covertly constructed kinds that instances require our social-conceptual imprimatur to be members of these kinds Machery , Mallon If this is right, constructionists who view construction as a constitutive relation need another account of the necessity of our conceptual practice: it is implausible and inconsistent to claim that the necessity arises out of concept or word meanings in cases of covert construction.
There is a different model of necessity for the constructionist, however, which is to hold that the necessity in question is revealed a posteriori by our investigations of the phenomenon in question. Saul Kripke , Hilary Putnam and others defended a causal theory of reference on which some terms notably natural kind terms referred to some sort of stuff or essence underlying the central uses of the term see Reference: Causal Theories. Crucially, however, because the reference relation is external, competent users of a term can be radically mistaken about what the term refers to and still successfully refer.
H 2 O , and this was true even when we did not know what sort of stuff that was i. While the causal theory of reference and its correct interpretation remains controversial, in many quarters of philosophy it has become accepted wisdom. Ideally, for such an approach to work, the constitutive constructionist would like an independent characterization of the sorts of social objects that investigation reveals to be identical with the kinds in question e.
Thomasson as well as more general critiques of employing theories of reference as premises in arguments with philosophically significant conclusions Mallon et al. For this reason, this strategy has been suggested in the case of race, gender, and other human kinds Haslanger , ; Mallon , , and more generally for scientific facts Boyd Of course, there may well be other models of necessity available.
For example, it is sometimes suggested that a neo-Kantian interpretation of social constructionism is possible, an interpretation on which our socio-linguistic activities could provide a transcendental basis for any knowledge of the world. Such an interpretation might allow certain apparently radical constitutive claims, but the challenge would remain to reconcile the view with a naturalistic conception of ourselves, something such a proposal may fail to do e. Boyd , Rosen Still, the prospect seems provocative, in part, because social construction has come to be associated with a critical anti-realist attitude towards science.
Above, we identified naturalism with a certain attitude towards science, and for present purposes, we develop this idea by identifying three naturalistic attitudes toward science that have been picked up by naturalists addressing social constructionist themes. These features characterize substantial threads of contemporary naturalist thought—threads that arise repeatedly in discussions of constructionism. Still, it is worth noting that something may be naturalistic in one sense but not another, and that the various threads we have characterized may sometimes be at odds.
For example, rational choice explanations in economics might count as naturalist in that they attempt to reduce complex macro-level phenomena to simple, micro-level phenomena at the level of individuals exhibiting some variety of metaphysical fundamentalism , and in the sense that they employ idealized causal modeling to do so as in 1c.
But they seem nonnaturalist insofar as they offer a highly idealized account of human behavior, one that seems frequently contradicted by the psychological facts about human reasoning see, e. We now review various naturalistic approaches to social construction, considering different sorts of entities in turn.
As we noted above, the production of facts by social agents poses no special problem for the naturalist where that production is understood causally, though naturalists of many stripes may want to produce causal models to show how the macro-level social phenomena of interest to many social theorists and social scientists are causally realized given what we know about, e. In contrast, constitutive claims of construction seem difficult to make sense of except on an account of construction on which social activity involving a representation comes to produce and causally sustain an object that is referred to by that representation.
In recognition of this state of affairs, many naturalist approaches to constructed phenomena have involved attempts to causally model matters of interest to constructionists in ways that engage more or less completely with existing scientific knowledge. In talking about the construction of representations, we address the range of mental states, group beliefs, scientific theories, and other representations that express concepts or propositions. Such representations are, among other things, the vehicles of our thought as well as the means by which we store, organize, and further our knowledge of the world, and we do this in virtue of their role as bearers of meaning.
A number of commentators have noted that many provocative constructionist claims are, in the first instance, claims that some sort of representation is constructed e. Andreasen , Hacking , Haslanger , Mallon Where we limit the objects of constructionist claims to representations such as theories , the claims cease to be particularly metaphysically provocative though detailed constructionist accounts of how certain representations came to be selected may still teach us much about science e.
Latour and Woolgar l Collins and Pinch In light of this, philosophers may be wont to diagnose some constructionist talk as a careless or even an intentionally provocative error of talking about the object of construction using a representation when one should be mentioning it thereby expressing a view about the referent of the representation rather than the representation itself. When Claudius Ptolemy offered a geo-centric theory of the universe in the second century CE, he thereby contributed to the social construction of something: namely, a geocentric theory of the universe.
We can talk about how and when that theory arose, and how it changed over time, but in doing so we are simply talking about a representation or perhaps a lineage of related representations. It would be a mistake simply to slip from those claims into saying that in constructing this theory he thereby constructed a geocentric universe. Hence, charity in interpretation alone may suggest attributing only the weaker claim to a constructionist author. Still some constructionists endorse a stronger claim as well—that in constructing the theories, the facts described by those theories are thereby made to be.
But if we leave at least the global versions of these additional claims aside as impossible to reconcile with naturalism, the distinctive feature of social constructionist explanations of representations is that they explain how we came to have those representations not by reference to the facts in the world they represent as in realism , nor by reference to associations among our sensations as in some forms of empiricism , nor by reference to innate knowledge or concepts as in rationalism , nor by reference to the conditions of our thought or experience as in transcendental arguments but rather by reference to social and cultural background facts.
Naturalist work on constructionist approaches to representations can be grouped according to the debate the naturalist is addressing. Naturalists addressing the challenge posed by social construction to the authority of science have attempted to respond to this challenge in a variety of ways that pit various versions of realism and empiricism against constructionism e. Boyd ; see Social Dimensions of Scientific Knowledge. Because naturalists are typically committed to science as a central, if fallible, avenue of knowledge about the world i.
Fodor illustrates this effect by pointing to cases of optical illusions like the Muller-Lyer illusion Fodor And while some philosophers e. Churchland , cf. Fodor have resisted this conclusion, some social scientists of knowledge have attempted to restate a constructionist view in ways that allow that Fodor may be correct. Barry Barnes, David Bloor and John Henry, for example, shift from emphasis on the determination of perceptual experience by culture to an emphasis on the underdetermination of belief by perceptual experience a view which leaves room for cultural determination of belief , Ch.
More generally, epistemologists and philosophers of science have taken up the project of accommodating social influence in the production of knowledge, and this project is well underway in contemporary social epistemology and philosophy of science e. Boyd ; Kitcher , These issues are taken up elsewhere Social Epistemology so we address them no further here.
Instead, I focus on attempts by naturalists to accommodate the cultural and personal processes at the heart of constructionist phenomena in naturalistic terms. In contrast to naturalistic responses to the threat of scientific anti-realism, naturalistic responses to constructionist claims about representations including beliefs understood as human traits have been far more sympathetic to constructionist approaches.
In contemporary naturalistic philosophy of science and psychology, the naturalistic explanation of culturally produced cognition is picked up by at least three distinct strands of work taking up constructionist themes of culture. The first is centered on the idea that culture can be understood by analogy with population genetics, and that cultural items might be understood to be more or less successful based upon their success in spreading in a population.
Various versions of this sentiment find expression in such diverse thinkers as Robert Boyd and Peter Richerson , a, b , D. While only some of these thinkers link the project to the understanding of constructionist research themes, the project in every case is to formally model cultural processes, understanding these complex processes as depending on simpler ones See also Cultural Evolution.
Carruthers , and it is most firmly represented among cognitive anthropologists and psychologists like Scott Atran , Pascal Boyer , , Laurence Hirschfeld , and Daniel Sperber Such an approach represents naturalism in most or perhaps all of the above senses, and it is finding its way into the work of naturalist philosophers of science and psychology Machery and Faucher , Mallon , Nichols , Prinz , Sripada , Sterelny A third, philosophically underdeveloped strand naturalizes crucial elements of critical constructionist approaches by suggesting the influence of sometimes implicit evaluations on judgments and theoretical activities.
Kunda suggests mechanisms for and some empirical validation of the critical social constructionist tradition of explaining the content of accepted theories in part by appeal to the interests of the theorists. Any sort of human trait could be an object of social construction, but many of the most interesting and contested cases are ones in which clusters of traits—traits that comprise human kinds—are purported to co-occur and to correlate with mental states, including dispositions to think and behave in particular ways.
Because discussion of kinds of persons with dispositions to think and behave quickly gives rise to other questions about freedom of the will and social regulation, debates over constructionism about kinds are central to social and political debates regarding human categorization, including debates over sex and gender, race, emotions, hetero- and homo-sexuality, mental illness, and disability.
Since the constructionist strategy explains a trait by appeal to highly contingent factors including culture , partisans of these debates often come inquire whether a trait or cluster of traits is culturally specific, or can be found across cultures. These issues can quickly come to generate more heat than light, and so one role that philosophers in general, and naturalists in particular, have played is to carefully analyze constructionist positions and their alternatives. For example, in reflecting on debates over cultural specificity or universality, a number of commentators have noted that constructionist claims of cultural specificity often hinge not on genuine empirical disagreement about what is or is not found through history and across cultures, but also on a strategy of individuating the phenomena in question in ways that do or do not involve contextual features that vary across cultures Mallon and Stich ; Boghossian , 28; Pinker , This conceptual project is a philosophical project par excellence , and it has contributed a great deal to clarifying just what conceptual and empirical issues are at stake in constructionist work.
Naturalist interpretations of constructionism have also taken up the distinct, open-ended, empirical project of defending substantive claims regarding the development and distribution of human traits via the suggestions that human socio-linguistic behaviors shape human traits including behavior via different avenues, both developmental and situational.
The idea is that the conception of a certain kind of person shapes both a widespread social response e. Cooper , Laimann forthcoming and of their mechanisms in human groups e. Anthony Appiah on racial identities, and Paul Griffiths on performed emotional syndromes. Such a causal model of the way in which social roles might shape behavior is at least arguably naturalistic in all of the above senses.
For example, constructionist ideas find diverse manifestations in the theory of emotions e. Griffiths and Prinz for discussion. Because social constructionism offers a general set of explanatory approaches, constructionist approaches can be expected to reemerge in a variety of ways in the attempt to explain a wide range of human phenomena.
Still a different way of developing naturalistic constructionist accounts of kinds involves using various formal methods to model such kinds. The former attempts to understand social structure as emerging from the collective adoption of rules, while the latter sees it as emerging along with various solutions to coordination and cooperation problems. As an example of the former, Searle influentially argues that we can understand social institutions as brought into being by collective endorsement of rules of the form:.
For instance, it might specify that tokens of a certain type produced by the U. Such statuses obtain in virtue of collective acceptance of one or more status functions. See the entry on social ontology. In contrast, the latter family of approaches attempts to understand social structure by using the tools of economic and evolutionary game theory to understand culture e. Here, norms, behaviors, and social regularities are seen as produced and stabilized by the preferences of individual actors making decisions in a social context of other actors. While rules-based approaches have been much discussed across a range of philosophical fields including metaphysics, social philosophy, empirically-informed philosophy of mind , equilibrium-based approaches have so far received comparatively little philosophical attention.
Many constructionist projects concerning human kinds are, or are pursued as part of, normative projects. Thinkers interested in gender, race, mental illness and disability, are often motivated not only by concern with the metaphysics of these categories, but with questions of social morality and justice that connect with them. This connection, in turn, raises a number of further questions about why they are connected, and how we ought to understand their relationship. One answer to these questions is simply that, once we understand the constructed nature of some category or phenomena, different normative conclusions will follow.
For instance, some have emphasized that because constructionist explanations highlight the role of agents in the production or the sustenance of phenomena, they make those agents subject to moral evaluation Kukla ; Mallon , forthcoming. A different approach might be that normative considerations ought to drive us towards certain metaphysical explanations.
For instance, Esa Diaz-Leon has argued that constitutive constructionist explanations are politically better than causal constructionist ones, on the grounds that constitutive constructions are more tightly connected to our socio-conceptual practices:. In contrast, Theresa Marques has argued that a focus on causal social construction is more relevant to projects of social justice. But if we see constructionism as a kind of explanation, then this debate can seem to put the cart before the horse.
The correctness of an explanation is given by some facts in the world. Deciding what we would like those facts to be, given our aims, seems to fail to appreciate the reality of our socio-conceptual practices and their consequences. More generally, while normative constructionist projects can be deeply engaged with our best scientific understanding, many naturalists will be tempted to attempt to distinguish descriptive and normative elements in order to engage them separately.
At the same time, ongoing naturalist work on human cooperation and coordination suggests the future possibility of more thoroughgoing naturalist approaches to construction that integrate naturalistic approaches to norms and normativity e. While most philosophical effort has gone towards the interpretation and refutation of provocative accounts of social construction arising especially out of studies in the history and sociology of science, social constructionist themes emerge across a host of other contexts, offering philosophical naturalists a range of alternate ways of engaging constructionist themes.
Philosophical naturalists as well as working scientists have begun to take up this opportunity in ways that use the methods of philosophy and science to both state and evaluate social constructionist hypotheses though not always under that label. Because of the powerful and central role culture plays in shaping human social environments, behaviors, identities and development, there is ample room for continuing and even expanding the pursuit of social constructionist themes within a naturalistic framework.
What is Social Construction? Naturalism and Social Construction 3. Naturalizing Social Construction 3. The first, and more straightforward idea is causal construction : X causally constructs Y if and only if X causes Y to exist or to persist or X controls the kind-typical properties of Y. This is a remarkable feature of social facts; it has no analogue among physical facts.
Related The Construction Of Reality In The Child: Volume 32 (International Library of Psychology)
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