Dialogue with Trypho

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Dialogue with Trypho (Selections from the Fathers of the Church, Volume 3)

False Christians, xxxv; lxxx. Christians who observe the Law, xlvii ; lxvii. Evil angels, lxxix. Gentiles and Jews. The call of the Gentiles, cix-cxi; cxv-cxxv; cxxx. Farewell, cxlii. In contending for our Faith to-day the sword we chiefly use is the character and personality of our Lord Jesus Christ. In earlier ages it was rather His miracles, and earlier still the predictions concerning Him which were found in the Old Testament.

But we no longer regard the Old Testament with the same eyes as Justin and his numberless successors. It is to us no mere arsenal of Divine utterances, from which we may seize this or that weapon as it happens to come, that with it we may smite the head, or pierce the heart, of our Jewish opponents. It has become to us no collection of instruments, nor even one elaborate mechan- ism, but rather a living growth, each of whose parts, branches, leaves, and cells, stands in a vital connexion with the rest.

If we would use any for weapons or for medicines we must consider them in relation to the whole, not as separate and independent utterances of an arbitrary Creator this may be good enough for a Qoran , but as the manifestations of His will and power wrought through means which He has appointed, modified, and developed.

The Old Testament has grown with a growth which does not permit of any portion of it being used capriciously, even for the best of purposes. In other words, no phrase of the Old Testament can be torn from its context, except with the express state- ment that it is so torn, and the acknowledgment that its Xxxviii the dialogue with trytho meaning cannot be severed from its place in history. To say this is not to deny the majesty of the Divine which is innate to it. It only limits the work of that Majesty to the direction which He gave it at the first.

Justin, however, like his contemporaries and his succes- sors, and all the Jews until our own day, knew nothing of this, and had no scruple in using texts just as he found them, if they but verbally suited his purpose. Not that he, or others, made no attempt to show that the meaning adduced was indeed that of the context. This was common enough with him. He argues, for example, from the context, that the Person with whom Abraham spoke before the destruction of Sodom was not the Father and yet was God, and was indeed the very Logos Himself lvi.

This is one case out of many. Yet Justin had no historical sense. He did not understand that God was revealing Himself very slowly, and that He could not, humanly speaking, have made known to the Jews that full brightness of His presence which was afterwards manifested in His Incarnate Son. Justin knew that he must base his teaching on the Old Testament, and there we agree with him. But though Justin rightly saw that the New Testament rested upon the Old, He was too fond of dragging the foundation stones out of their proper place, and of endeavouring to use them as integral parts of the higher structure.

We regard things differently from Justin. The Old Testament is for us the heir of all the ages that preceded it. They incorporated the best of what they found. They purified religious customs. They improved social laws. This they did in accordance with the suggestions of the Holy Spirit. For He was ever with them, guiding, exhibiting, selecting. Yet He was also placing in their hearts, and still more in their words though all unknown to them adumbrations of the future, and principles of which the full force was to be apparent only in the light of the cross, the resurrection, and the triumph of Christ.

In short, the writers of the Old Testament were so guided that although it never rises to be wholly Christian, but remains at an inferior level, it is still the basis, though only the basis, of New Testa- ment truth. We ourselves however are in grave danger of minimising the Divine side of inspiration, and of supposing that the choice of words in Old Testament writings had no higher object than to please the ear, and strengthen the imagery.

Yet was it, for example, by accident that the prophet spoke of Messiah riding upon an ass Zech. We dare not exaggerate the work of God the Holy Ghost, and say He merely dictated Holy Scripture ; we equally dare not put limits to His work of preparation for the Gospel. We often cannot accept the methods of our predecessors. But we may well pray for their spiritual insight. He further shows, however, that ultimately the faith of the disciples did not rest on such quotations, but on their personal knowledge of the Saviour.

Possessing this, they found innumerable incidents and principles in the Old Testament, which as we should say were exemplified at their highest in Christ.


Listening to Trypho

Otto,- S. Davie, The Works now extant of St. Justin the Martyr, Library of Fathers, Reith, Translation in T. Irenaeus, Against Heresies, Harvey, Texte und Unters. Lukyn Williams The Warburton Lectures for The Hebrew-Christian Messiah, Lukyn Williams, Christian Evidences for Jewish people, vol.

As I was walking- one early morning in the cloisters of the Colonnade 1 a man met me, with others round him, and said, Good morning, Philosopher. And so saying he turned, and began to walk along with me, and his friends too turned with him. And I in reply addressed him and said : What may be your pleasure? He answered : I was taught in Argos by Corinthus of the school of Socrates 2 that one must not despise nor ignore those that wear this dress 3 you have on, but 1 the colonnade.

Justin Martyr -- What did early Christians teach about the resurrection, millennium, Jerusalem?

Presumably at Ephesus Euseb. If so, T. Apollonius of Tyana held discussions there Philostratus, Life, iv. When philosophers became Christians they retained their garb because it gave them opportunities for conversation. So Eusebius speaks of J. It appears to have been the origin of monastic dress. For it is well for both if either be benefited. For this reason, whenever I see anyone in such a dress, I gladly draw nigh to him, and therefore had now the pleasure of addressing you. And these are followers and companions of mine, and themselves anticipate hearing some profitable discourse from you.

He told me frankly both his name and his nationality. I am called Trypho, 2 he said, and I am a circumcised Hebrew, who have fled from the war which broke out recently, 3 and am spending much time in Greece and in Corinth. How then, said I, could you derive so much advantage from philosophy, as from your own lawgiver and your prophets? What do you mean? Do not the philosophers discourse entirely about God, he went on to say, and hold their discussions invariably about supreme government and providence?

And is not this the business of philosophy, to make enquiries into the nature of divinity? It is also the Greek form of the Semitic name Tarphon, and some scholars have carelessly identified the T. Tarphon who died about a. See Introd. IV, pp. If this phrase may be pressed the discussion with T. The war was over in a. In xvi. In cviii. Yes, I said, we ourselves certainly have thought so. But here is a point which the great majority 1 of philosophers have not taken into consideration, whether there be one or even several gods, and whether they exercise providence over each of us or not, as though this knowledge did not contribute anything unto happiness.

On the contrary, they even endeavour to persuade us that while God cares for the universe and even for races and species, yet He cares no further for you and me and for the individual. For, if He did, should we not be praying to Him all day and night? But how this theory finally works out for them, is not difficult to understand. For if there be no providence there is no sense of responsibility, and there is freedom to say this, and to follow those who think it, and, both to do and to say whatever they choose, neither fearing punishment nor expecting any good from God.

How can it be otherwise? For they say that things will always remain as they are, and further, that you and I shall live again as we are living now, without having become either better or worse. But some others, 2 premising that the soul is immortal and incorporeal, think that even if they have committed any wrong they will suffer no punishment for the incorporeal is incapable of suffering , and again, as the soul itself is by its nature immortal, they have no further need for God.

Then he said, smiling courteously, But pray tell us what are your own thoughts about these things, and what opinion you hold about God, and what is vour own attitude as a philosopher. I will tell you, said I, what at least seems plain to me. For in reality philosophy is a very great advantage, and most precious in the sight of God, to whom, by its own intrinsic worth, it leads us and commends us.

And they who have applied their minds to philosophy are in truth holy. What however philosophy is, and for what reason it was sent down to men, has escaped the notice of most people. For otherwise there would not be Platonists or Stoics, or Peripatetics, or Theoreticians, 1 or Pythagoreans, this system of knowledge being a unity.

But the reason why it has become a hydra of many heads I should like to explain. It happened that they who first handled philosophy, and for this reason became famous, were followed by men who made no investigation about truth, but were only amazed at their patience and self-restraint and their unfamiliar diction, and supposed that whatever each learned from his own teacher was true.

And then they, when they had handed on to their successors all such things, and others like them, were themselves called by the name borne by the originator of the teaching. So at first, as I myself had the same desire 2 to come into contact with one of these, I put myself into the hands of a certain Stoic, and as, after I had spent a fair time with him, I got no further with respect to God for he did not know himself and he was continually saying that this learning was not necessary I withdrew from 1 Theoreticians.

And after bearing- with me for a few days he thought that I ought to fix his fees, that our intercourse should not be without profit to us! So for this reason I left him, for I did not think that he was a philosopher at all. But as my soul was still painfully full of desire to hear the special note and the supreme excellence of philosophy, I addressed myself to a Pythagorean 1 of great reputation, a man who devoted much thought to wisdom.

For surely you do not suppose that you will get a clear vision of any of the things that contribute to happiness, if you were not first taught those which will draw the soul away from the visible, and make it fit for the intellectual, so that it may have a clear vision both of the noble and the good as they are in themselves? And when he had greatly praised these branches of learning, and had insisted on the necessity of them, he dismissed me, for I confessed to him that I knew them not.

I felt vexed therefore, as might be supposed, at being thus disappointed of my hope, and the more so as I thought he did know something. Reckoning also once more the time I should have to spend on those subjects, I could not bear to put things off so long. Now in my distress I thought it well to have re- course to the followers of Plato, for their reputation also was high. Accordingly I had as much intercourse as I could with an intelligent man, a leading man among the Platonists, recently come to live in our city, 1 and I was making good progress, advancing more and more every day.

I was quite enraptured with the perception of immaterial things, and the contemplation of ideas added wings 2 to my intelligence, and within a short time I supposed I had become wise, and in my obtuse- ness was hoping to have forthwith a clear vision of God. Ill 1. Now when I had come near the very place I intended to reach, and hoped to be quite alone, a venerable and elderly person, followed me somewhat closely. He was of an aspect which invited anything but contempt, giving, as it did, the impression of a kindly and grave disposition. I turned back towards him, and standing still looked at him rather keenly.

I said that I did not. I , because that city is at some distance from the sea iii. No doubt Ephesus is intended, as being the scene of the present discussion, and common ground to both J. Phaedrus Tatian, ad Graec. For I did not expect to see anyone here. They have gone away from me, and therefore I have come to see after them myself, on the chance of their putting in an appearance somewhere. But you — what are you doing here? But without philosophy and right reason none can possibly have practical wisdom. Therefore every human being ought to study philosophy, and deem it the greatest and most valuable act of all, putting all other things in the second and third place.

For, if they are made dependent on philosophy, they are of some value and worthy of acceptation, but if deprived of it, and lacking its accompaniment, they are, for those who pursue them, only burdensome and vulgar. Tell me, if there is nothing to prevent your doing so.

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For in all the arts he that has skill in any one of them is called skilful, for example, in military matters, navigation, and medicine. But in things that concern the divine and the human it is not so. Is there a science that affords cognizance of the human and the divine, and then cognition of the divinity and righteous- ness of the latter?

If one were to tell you that there is in India an animal different in nature from all others, and of such and such appearance, of many forms and many colours, you would have no knowledge of it before seeing it, and could not even give any account of it unless you had heard from some one who had seen it. But this very BEING, he says, 1 a BEING beyond all essence, not to be expressed in words, nor to be described, but alone noble and good, is suddenly implanted within well-born souls because of their kinship with It and their longing to behold It. Or is also the soul divine, and immortal, and part of that sovereign mind of which you speak?

Justin Martyr’s Dialogue With Trypho (The Patristic Summaries Series)

And as this sees God, can we also thus attain to grasp the divine 1 all other living beings. But let us now leave it at that, and let what you say be granted. But tell me this : Does the soul see while it is in the body, or when it is released therefrom? I said. For they would know that they are being punished in this way, and would be afraid to commit even the slightest sin afterwards. Because if it is immortal it plainly is also unbegotten. For what reason has one to suppose that a body so hard, 1 and resisting, and compound, and altering, and perishing, and coming into being every day has not had its being from a beginning of some sort?

But if the world is begotten, it follows neces- sarily that souls have come into- being, and perhaps may cease to be ; for they come into being for the sake of men and the other living creatures, if you will admit without reserve that they have come into being by them- selves, and not with the bodies that they each possess. For that would in truth be a piece of luck for the bad. What do I say? That the souls of the pious dwell in some better place, but the unrighteous and wicked in a worse, awaiting then the time of judge- ment. Thus the one sort, as plainly worthy of God, die not any more; but the others are punished, as long as God wills them both to exist and to be punished.

Does this precise doctrine seem to you to be taught also about the soul, and, in short, about all things? For he means that what things soever are after God, or ever will be, have a corruptible nature, and can disappear and be no more. For God alone is unbegotten and incorrupt, and is for this reason God, but all else after Him is begotten and corruptible. For this reason the souls both die and are punished, since, if they were unbegotten, they would neither sin at all nor be filled full of folly, nor be cowardly and then again courageous, nor would they of their own accord ever go off into swine and serpents and dogs.

Neither assuredly would it be even right to compel them to do so, if, that is to say, they are unbegotten. For the unbegotten is like the Unbegotten, and equal, and the same, and one may not be preferred to the other in power or dignity. Hence the things that are un- begotten are not many. For if there were any differ- ence in them, you could not by examination find any cause for this difference, but, if you send back your thought for ever to infinity you will sooner or later stay exhausted upon one thing that was unbegotten, and this you will say was the cause of all.

Did all this, I say, escape the notice of such sages as Plato and Pytha- goras, who became for us a very wall and bulwark of philosophy? For the truth is in this wise, and you may learn from it. The soul either is life or has life.

Dialogue with Trypho (Justin Martyr)

And that the soul lives, none would gainsay. But, if it lives, it does not live as being life but as sharing in life, and anything which partakes is other than that of which it partakes. But a soul partakes of life when God wills it to live. In the same way then it will also not partake of life at the moment, whenever that is, that He wishes it not to live. For living is not proper to it as it is to God. But a man does not exist for ever, and as the body is not always connected with the soul, but, when it is necessary for this concord to be broken, the soul forsakes the body and the man is no more, so also, in the same way, when it is necessary for the soul to be no more, the spirit of life departs from it, and the soul is no more, but spontaneously goes back again thither whence it was taken.

It is, in fact, not impossible that Pythagoras may have met Jews in Ionia, and acquired some information from them. Hermippus quoted by Josephus c. Apion i. Abra- hams, Studies, second series, p. Prophets do men call them. They, and they only, saw the truth and declared it to mankind, without fear or shame of any, not domin- ated by ambition, but saying only what they had heard and seen, filled as they were with the Holy Spirit.

Now their writings still remain with us even to the present time, and it is open to anyone to consult these, and to gain most valuable knowledge both about the origin of things and their end, and all else that a philosopher ought to know, if he believes what they say. For they have not made their discourses, when they wrote, with logical proof, inasmuch as being trust- worthy witnesses of the truth they are superior to all such proof, but the things that did take place and are taking place now compel agreement with' what they have spoken.

And yet even on account of the miracles which they wrought they were entitled to belief, for they both glorified the Maker of all things as God and Father, and proclaimed the Christ sent from Him, as His Son, a thing which the false prophets who are filled with the seducing and unclean spirit never did nor ever do, but dare to work miracles of a sort to amaze men, and give glory to the spirits of error and daemons. But pray that before all else the gates of light 1 may be 1 the gates of light.

Barn, xviii. For things are not seen nor compre- hended of all, save of him to whom God, and His Christ, shall have given understanding. After saying this and many other things besides, which it is not now a fitting time to tell, he went away, bidding me follow his advice, and I saw him no more. But as for me, straightway a fire was kindled in my soul, and a passionate desire possessed me for the prophets, and for those great men who are the friends of Christ.

And as I weighed his words within me I found that this alone was philosophy, 1 and philosophy safe and serviceable. In this way then and for these reasons am I a philosopher. For these have in them- selves a something of dreadful majesty, and are enough to put to shame those that turn out of the right way: while rest most delightful comes to those who carry them out in practice. If therefore you have any regard for yourself, and are in earnest after salvation, and are trusting on God, you may, forasmuch as you are no stranger to the subject, know the Christ of God and be initiated, and then live a prosperous and happy life.

Justin asserts that the only true philo- sophy of this kind is to be found in Christianity. Your other remarks, he says, I accept, and I admire your zeal for the Divine, but it were better 2 for you to con- tinue to hold the philosophy of Plato or of some other learned man, practising the while endurance and self- control and temperance, than to have been completely led away by false speeches, and to follow men of no account.

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For while you remained in that mode of philo- sophy and lived a blameless life, a hope was left you of a better fate, but when you have forsaken God, and placed your hope on a man 3 what kind of salvation yet remains for you? But Messiah, if indeed He has ever 1 dear Friend. Nothing is known of him. Orthodox Christians believe Jesus to be man, more completely man than any other, and also God in the fullest sense. Lukyn Williams. Contrast R. Jose ben Judah c. For Elijah, see notes 5, 6. Nachman fourth century a. Rab died a. For some Jews thought Messiah would be on earth for a time before He made Himself known cf.

He might even be among the lepers at the gates of Rome T. So in fact He lived on earth privately for thirty years before He began His public life at His baptism. The same thought appears in Matt. But much in the Gospels, e. Though this expectation is not found as it seems in the Mishna it occurs with many details in later Jewish writings. Tanchuma on Ex. Warsaw, , p. Prophets and priests anointed kings, and it is a logical deduction that Elijah who was both prophet and priest will anoint king Messiah, but it does not seem to be expressly stated in any of the earlier Jewish docu- ments.

Klausner however accepts our passage as conclusive evidence for the existence of this tradition in the second century Die Mess. V orstellungen u. See further Dalman, Der leidende und der sterbende Messias, , pp. But you people, by receiving a worthless rumour, shape a kind of Messiah for yourselves, 1 and for His sake are now blindly perishing.

May you be pardoned, Sir, and be forgiven, for you know not what you say, but obeying teachers who do not understand the Scriptures, and playing the oracle, you say whatever comes into your mind. For if you will attend I will show you that we did not believe empty fables, 2 or words that cannot be proved, but such as are full of the Divine Spirit, gushing forth 3 with power, and teeming with grace.

They therefore that were with him laughed aloud again, and began to shout quite rudely. So I rose up and prepared to take my departure. But he took hold of my robe and said that I must not leave before I had fulfilled my promise. If so, I said, your companions must not make a disturbance, nor behave in so unseemly a fashion, but, if they like, let them listen quietly. But if they have any more important engagement that prevents their staying, let them depart. But as for us, let us withdraw to some spot where we may rest and finish our discussion.

It seemed well to Trypho also that we should do so, and we then turned aside and proceeded to the middle space of the Colonnade. But when they ceased, I began to address them again as follows : Is there any other fault you find with us, my friends, save this, that we do not live in accordance with the Law, and do not circumcise the flesh as did your forefathers, and do not keep the sabbath as you do? I say this, lest you too have believed of us that we eat human beings, and after a banquet put out the lights and wallow in promiscuous lust.

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Or do you condemn us for this alone, that we pay heed to doctrines such as I have stated, and hold an opinion which, you think, is not true? Yes, this is what surprises us, said Trypho, for the popular tales are not worthy of credence. They are far 1 the middle space of the Colonnade. For the mise en schne cf. Cicero, Brut. Cum igitur pauca in xysto locuti essemus, turn eodem in spatio consedimus. But we are especially at a loss about this, that you, saying you worship God, and thinking yourselves sup- erior to other people, separate from them in no respect, and do not make your life different from the heathen, in that you keep neither the feasts nor the sabbaths, nor have circumcision, and, moreover, though you set your hopes on a man that was crucified, you yet hope to obtain some good from God, though you do not do His commandments.

Now have you not read : That soul shall be cut off from his people 4 which shall not be circumcised on the eighth day? The charge refers alike to strangers 5 and to purchased slaves. It follows that when you have directly despised this cove- nant you neglect the commands that come afterwards, 6 and as persons who know God you attempt to 1 persuade us, though you practise none of these things which they who fear God do.

If therefore you have any defence to make with reference to these points, and can show 1 See J. Meir c. Compare R. Jochanan b. Nappacha, died c. Afterwards let us examine the other points in the same way. XI There will never be any' other God, Trypho, and there never was from all eternity, so said I to him, save He who made and established this universe. Nor do we consider that we have one God, and you another, but Him only who brought your fathers out of the land of Egypt by a mighty hand and a stretched out arm, 1 nor have we set our hopes on any other for there is none , but only on Him on whom you also have set yours, the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob.

Yet our hope is set on Him not by means of Moses nor by means of the Law ; for then we should assuredly be doing the same as you. For in fact I have read, Trypho, that there is to be both a final Law 2 and a Disposition 3 that is superior 1 Deut. This is the only definition fully congruent with Christianity. But elsewhere J. Clement Strom, i. The phrase in xliii. Testament also is inaccurate, for though a diatheke is often, perhaps generally, used of dispo- sitions of property which become effective at the death of the testator Heb.

For the Law given at Horeb is already antiquated and belongs to you alone, but that other belongs to all men absolutely. And a Law set over against a Law has made the one before it to cease, and a Disposition coming into existence afterwards has in like manner limited any former one. And as an eternal and final Law was Christ given to us, and this Disposition is sure, after which there is no law, or ordinance, or command.

Or have you not read what Isaiah says : Hear ye me, hear ye me, O my people, and ye kings hearken unto me, for a law shall go forth from me and my judg- ment for a light of the nations. My righteousness draweth nigh speedily, and my Salvation shall go forth, and nations shall set their hope on my arm? If therefore God proclaimed a new Disposition as about to be established, and this for a light of the nations, we then see and are sure that by the name of Him who was crucified, Jesus Christ, men part from idols and all other iniquity, and draw near to 1 God, and make con- fession of Him, and worship, enduring unto death.

And from their works, and the power that accompan- ies them, all can understand that He is the new Law, and the new Disposition, and the Expectation of those from among all the nations, who await the good things 1 Isa. For we are the true and spiritual Israelitish nation, 1 and the race of Judah and of Jacob and Isaac and Abraham, who when he was still uncircumcised 2 received witness from God for his faith, and was blessed, and was called father of many nations — we, I say, are all this, who were brought nigh to God by Him who was crucified, even Christ, as will be demonstrated in the course of our discussion.

XII 1. I continued my argument by bringing forward the fact that Isaiah cries aloud elsewhere : Hear ye my words, and your soul shall live , and I will make for you an everlasting Disposition, the holy and sure blessings of David. Behold, I have given Him as witness to the nations. Nations which know thee not, shall call on thee; peoples which have no knowledge of thee, shall flee unto thee; because of thy God, the Holy One of Israel, for He hath glorified thee.

Him Himself who is the Law 4 you dishonoured, and His new holy Disposition you despised, and not even now do you receive Him, or repent, though you did so ill. For your ears are still stopped up, your eyes callous, and your heart waxed fat. On circum- cision see xix. A second circumcision is now necessary, and ye are making much of your flesh ; the new Law wishes you to keep sabbath all the time, 2 and you think you are acting piously by being lazy for one day, not con- sidering the reason why it was commanded you; and if ye eat unleavened bread, ye say ye have fulfilled the will of God.

It is not in these things that our Lord takes pleasure. If any among you is a false-swearer or a thief, let him cease; if any an adulterer, let him repent ; then he has kept the delightsome 3 and true sabbaths of God. If any has not clean hands, let him wash; then is he clean. For assuredly, it was not to a bath that Isaiah sent you to wash away murder there and all other sins, which not even the whole water of the sea is sufficient to cleanse, but, as is probable, this was of old that laver of salvation, which he meant, namely, for those who repent and no longer cleanse themselves with the blood- shedding of goats and sheep, or the ashes of an heifer and offerings of meal, but by faith, through the blood of Christ and His death.

Who died for this cause, as 1 The Lawgiver. Explained in Iren. For the con- troversy about the sabbath Saturday see xix. The Lord shall uncover His holy arm before all the nations , and all the nations shall see , and the ends of the earth , the sal- vation that comes from God. Depart , depart , depart, go forth thence and touch no unclean thing; go forth out of the midst of her; separate yourselves, ye who bear the vessels of the Lord; for in no confusion do ye journey; for there shall journey before your face the Lord, and He that is your rearguard is the Lord, the God of Israel.

Behold, my servant shall understand, and shall be exalted and shall be greatly glorified. Because they to whom it was not announced concerning Him shall see, and they who have not heard shall understand. Lord , who believed the report that came to us? And the arm of the Lord to whom was it revealed? We bore tidings before Him, as a child, as a root in a thirsty land. He has not form nor glory ; and we saw Him, and He had not form nor beauty; but His form was lacking in honour, and weak beyond the sons of men. A man long in suffering, and acquainted with bearing sickness, for His face is turned away from us ; He was dishonoured and no count was taken of Him.

This man beareth our sins and suffers pain for us, and we accounted Him as being in trouble , in suffering and in distress. But this man was wounded of our sins, and has suffered sick- ness because of our iniquities; the chastisement of our peace is on Him; by His stripe were we healed. We all went astray as sheep; each went astray in His way. And the Lord delivered Him up to our sins, and He openeth not His mouth because of being evil entreated. In His humiliation His judgment was taken away , and His generation who shall declare?

For His life is taken away from the earth, from the iniquities of My people has He come unto death. And I will give the wicked instead of His burial, and the rich instead of His death, because He did no iniquity and guile was not found in His mouth. And the Lord is willing to cleanse Him from His suffering. If ye give an offering for sin, your soul shall see a long-lived seed. And the Lord is willing to take Him away from the trouble of His soul, to show to Him light, and to form Him with understanding , to justify the just, that serveth many well.

And He shall bear our sins. Therefore shall He receive many as His inheritance, and shall divide the spoils of the strong, because His soul was delivered up because of their iniquities. Rejoice thou barren that bearest not, for many more are the children of her who is desolate than of her who has her husband. For the Lord said: Enlarge the place of thy tent and of thy curtains; fix, spare not; lengthen thy cords and strengthen thy tent-pegs, stretch out right and left; and thy seed shall inherit nations, and thou shalt inhabit deserted cities.

Fear not, because thou wast put to shame; nor dread, because thou wast reproached r because thou shalt forget perpetual shame, and shalt not remember the reproach of thy widowhood. For the Lord made Himself a name, and He that delivered thee, He, the God of Israel, shall be called so of all the earth. As a woman forsaken and faint-hearted hath the Lord called thee, as a woman hated from her youth. See also Iren.

For this is the inner meaning br th e unleavened bread, that ye do not practise the old deeds of the bad leaven. There- fore also after the seven days of eating unleavened bread God charged you to knead new leaven 3 for your- selves, that is, the practice of other deeds, and not the imitation of the old and worthless. And to show that this is what this new Lawgiver requires of you I will repeat over again the words that have before been spoken by me, 4 together with the rest that were omitted. Now they are thus said by Isaiah : 4. Hear ye Me, and your sold shall live, and I will make for you an Ter.

Goldfahn supposes that J. Behold I have given Him for witness to nations , a ruler and commander to nations. Nations which know thee not, shall call on thee ; and peoples, which have no- knowledge of thee, shall flow unto thee ; because of thy God, the Holy One of Israel, for He hath glorified thee - 5. Seek ye God, and when ye find Him call on Him,, when He draweth near to you. Let the ungodly for - sake his ways, and a lawless man his plans, and let him return to the Lord, and he shall receive mercy, because He will greatly forgive your sins.

For my plans are not as your plans, nor my ways as your ways, but as far as the heaven is distant from the earth, so far is my way distant from your way, and your thoughts from my thinking. For as snow comes down, or rain, from the heaven, and turns not away, until it soaks the earth, and brings forth, and causes to bud, and gives seed to the sower and bread for food, so shall My word be, which goeth forth at any time out of My mouth.

It shall not turn away, until all things whatsoever I desired are completed, and I prosper my commandments. For in gladness shall ye go forth and in joy shall be led over. Now of these and such-like words spoken by the prophets, Trypho, I said, some have been spoken with reference to the first coming- of Christ, 1 in which He has been proclaimed as about to appear both without honour and without form 2 and mortal, but others have been spoken with reference to His second coming, when He will be present in glory and upon the clouds, and your people will see and will recognize Him whom they pierced, as Hosea, one of the Twelve Prophets, and Daniel foretold.

And learn therefore to fast 4 the true fast of God, as Isaiah says, in order that ye may please God. Now Isaiah has cried thus : Cry out with strength, and spare not. Lift up thy voice as with a trumpet and announce to my race their sins and to the house of Jacob their transgressions. Me will they seek day after day, and they long to know my ways, as a people that has done righteousness and not forsaken the judgment of God. They ask me now for righteous judgement, and long to draw near to God, saying: Why is it that we fasted 1 the first coming of Christ.

His second coming. We generally suppose that the ideal Man would have been remarkable for physical strength and beauty, but the contrary belief, based on Isa. Origen said that mystically the beauty or ugliness of His appearance varied with those who saw Him c. See further Pearson, Creed, pp. I Apol. For in the days of your fasts ye find your own desires, and ye sting all those who are under your control. Behold, ye fast for disputes and strifes, and ye strike the lowly with your fists.

Why do ye fast to Me until this day, for your voice to be heard in clamour? This is not the fast that I chose even a day for a man to humble his soul. Nor if thou shouldest bend thy neck as a ring, and spread under thee sackcloth and ashes, not even so shall ye call it a fast and a day acceptable to the Lord. Not such a fast as this did I choose, saith the Lord, but loose every un- just bond, unloose the knots of hard contracts, 1 send away the crushed at liberty, and tear asunder every unjust agreement. Break thy bread in pieces for the hungry, and gather the poor who have no shelter into thy house.

If thou seest one naked, clothe him; and from the kinsmen of thy seed thou shalt not look away in contempt. The full text of this article hosted at iucr. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. Learn more. Volume 45 , Issue 1. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username.

Religious Studies Review Volume 45, Issue 1.

  • A Resource for the Pilgrim Church.
  • Dialogue with Trypho : Justin Martyr : .
  • Start With Your Heart.

Nathan L. Shedd St. Justin argues extensively on the basis of lengthy Old Testament quotations that Christ is the Messiah and God incarnate, and that the Christian community is the new Israel. In the beginning of the work Justin recounts how he converted to Christianity. The ""Dialogue"" remains of great, and varying, interest. It has important information on the development of Jewish-Christian relations, on the development of the text of the New Testament, and on the existence and character of the early Jewish Christian community.

Justin's story of how he became a Christian is one of our early conversion accounts. The ""Dialogue"" is a useful textbook for classes investigating the development of religion in Late Antiquity since it touches on many aspects of religion in the Roman Empire. This edition of the ""Dialogue with Trypho"" is a revision of Thomas B.

Fall's translation, which appeared in ""Fathers of the Church"", volume 6. Thomas P. Halton has amended the translation in light of the critical edition by Miroslav Marcovich, and has provided extensive annotation to recent scholarship on the ""Dialogue"". Michael Slusser has edited the volume to bring it into conformity with the new selection from the ""Fathers of the Church"" series. Product details Format Paperback pages Dimensions Other books in this series.

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