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But a medical revolution is underway that can solve this problem. He agreed with J. Not merely survival, let us be clear, but some form of higher life or super-life. They will open to an advance Dobzhansky, op. But tell yourself, categorically, that for the success of the enormous work of creation, God only needs one thing: that you should do your best. See, for example: id. Oldfield et D. Vernadskii and the development of biogeochemical understandings of the biosphere, c.
Tsiolkovskii, Kosmicheskaia filosofiia [La philosophie cosmique] , Cfera, , p.
Chaque animal est un petit univers. Tsiolkovskii, op. An animal in either kingdom has its systematic mode of formation or growth. Every sphere in space must have had a related system of growth, and all are, in fact, individualities in this Kingdom of Worlds. Ce milieu de son habitation est toute la surface de la Terre.
Mais Vernadski ne soutient pas, comme un Tchijevski, que le cosmos est un et vivant. Mais cette distinction est selon lui quantitative et non qualitative. La Terre souffre.
Elle se vengera. CNRS, Gavaudan, M. Guyot et A. Gavaudan, Paris, Masson, Raulin- Cerceau et S. Bernal, The Origin of Life, trad. Synge, London, Weidenfeld and Nicholson, Il fut traduit dans plusieurs langues et notamment en anglais en Dauvillier et E.blacksmithsurgical.com/t3-assets/trilogy/mother-shadow-an-la-murder.php
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Pour sa biographie voir D. Les trois premiers ont une nature historique. Dans lequel il est question des conditions du milieu terrestre primorodial. Watson et F. Par ailleurs, la publication des travaux de Matthew Meselson et Franklin W. Meselson et F. Les actuelles mitochondries. Histoire, recherches et archives, , , p. Samoilov The first Russian physiologist, doctor of philosophy and medicine, P. Postnikov, studied at the University of Padua where he defended his doctoral thesis.
In other words, a division occurred in a huge field of knowledge into two separate disciplines. Galler is thought to be the initiator of this institutionalization. Unfortunately, the contribution in the process of I. However, the introduction of experimentation in physiological research had been strongly resisted by representatives of natural philosophy, then dominant at German universities and merging with vitalism.
Famous historian of medicine G. Vellansky promoted natural philosophy rejecting experimentation, yet most of the researchers supported the experi- mental research of physiological processes. Ivan Glebov, the teacher of I. According to I. Magendie, Kazan astronomer, Simonov, published an article in about the mechanism of the accommodation of the eye, a work which can be considered the first scientific research on the physiology of sensory system in Russia. The great reformer of physiology, J. Ivanovskiy ed. Karlik, Klod Bernar, Moscow, Nauka, , p.
Magendie, Kratkoe osnovanie fiziologii, Moscow, , p. Franco-German-Russian physiological triangle in the 19th century works in bookshops and destroyed them. He quickly became a devotee of experimental physiology and trained a galaxy of eminent scientists who approved the methodology in physiology and related fields of natural science once and for all. Ludwig, T. Schwann, R. Virchow, E. Haeckel, J. Henle, F. Bidder, R. Remak, I. Claparede, A. Filomafitsky, N. Pirogov, I. Flourens and C. Bernard were working in France.
Sechenov wrote on that matter that C. As acknowledged by I. Pavlov, as a student, he had learned French to read C. The unification of the small German states into one power under the aegis of Prussia led to a better funding of scientific research; in the setting of the rapid development of industry, the techniques of experimental work were improving; physiologic institutes with excellent conditions for work were founded. And if C. There, psychologists not only worked, but also lived C. The institute of physiology at Leipzig University became an inter- national scientific training school for physiologists after E.
Weber had been replaced by K. Ludwig at the university faculty in Samoilov and A. The life of the institute research was the life of its leader and the achievements of the teams were the achievement of K. It was consistent, according to H. There were eleven U. Chesnokova, Karl Ludwig, Moscow, Nauka, , p. Helmholtz, Ob akademicheskoi svobode germanskikh universitetov, Moscow, , p. From to , nearly half of all the articles published in the Leipzig Journal were the works of Russian scientists. In the late s, the number of works decreased because Russia had its own scientific journals by then.
Many foreign physiologists began to visit Russian scientists for training and consultation. Later, having abandoned natural philosophy and developed experimental approach in physiological science, German physiologists occupied a dominant position. The physiological studies of British and American scientists were still inferior. Sechenov, I. Pavlov, I. Tsion, N. Yakubovich, I. Fulton and L. Orbeli, Izbrannye trudy, Leningrad, Nauka, , vol. Il recevra 1. Altschuller et W. Pirogov, Questions of life, Diary of an old physician, India, Watson publishing International, , p.
Il meurt en Ukraine en Il compare les effets des deux substances et recueille de nombreuses observations. Keenan, art. Gouzevitch et D. Gouzevitch, art. Ivanov, art. Peter et N. The reflexes were called involuntary movements, because their performance was observed in decapitated frogs, in the absence of the brain and of consciousness. Marked progress was made by the description of the specific automatic functions in organic life, such as respiration and in animal life, such as locomotion.
They were also included among the involuntary movements, because their activity was observed after a lesion of the brain, which was proposed as the seat of the voluntary movements. In contrast, the main difficulty for physiologists was the understanding of the mechanisms of voluntary movements because they were defined in psychological and philosophical terms, and thus escaped the field of Physiology.
According to a mate- rialist approach, these mechanisms were considered dependent on the integrity of the brain. How is it possible to explain the problem of the will, the concepts of ideas, memory and consciousness in physiological terms? Vulpian replaced Pierre Flourens and he was in charge of the chair in comparative physiology of the Museum of Natural History in Paris. Vulpian was well aware of the work of Sechenov on central inhibition which he criticized in his book on the basis of new experimentation. Alfred Vulpian was at the same time an outstanding physiologist, an excellent neurologist and an anatomo-pathologist.
He was born in Paris in Fritsch and E. Vulpian obtained his doctoral thesis in , on the origin of the cranial nerves. Vulpian was also a neurologist and an anatomo-pathologist. Vulpian acknowledged that the microscope was not given as much attention in France as it was in Germany, with Rudolf Virchow, and, together with Charcot, he played an important role in developing microscopy in Paris.
One of his main findings was a description, in parallel with Charcot, of multiple sclerosis. His other main fields of interest were the degeneration and regener- ation of the nerves and the vaso-motor apparatus. He was also a pioneer in neuro-pharmacology. Bogousslavsky, O. Walusinski and T.
Flourens experienced mainly on birds pigeons , and made a distinction between voluntary movements, depending on the hemispheres, and involuntary movements based on lower brain stem structures. Vulpian analyzed four main categories of involuntary movements in the lessons: the reflexes, the sensitive-motor reactions, the automatisms and the instinctive behaviours. In his analysis, he was very attentive to the evolutive aspects as Flourens himself was.
Involuntary and voluntary movements: mostly common views … The old concept of sensorium commune first proposed by Aristotle refers to the site in the brain, which collects information from the proper sense organs in order to produce sensations, which are the source of consciousness. The reflex action in spinal animals is, generally speaking, considered to be a fixed prewired circuit that always produces the same response. For example, pinching a toe of a hind limb in a decapitated frog provokes a flexion of the limb and has a functional significance, i.
When the stimulus intensity increases a bilateral limb extension takes place instead of an ipsilateral flexion, which should either propel the animal forward or push the irritating agent away. These reactions seem aimed at protecting the animal against external aggressions.
Jeannerod, Le cerveau machine. Physiology of the will], Paris, Fayard, This led Vulpian to make an interesting suggestion by proposing that the same spinal centre, responsible for voluntary-like movements produced by external stimulation in spinal animals, could also be stimulated by centrifugal impulses originating from the brain during the performance of voluntary movements when the hemispheres are intact.
Are the sensations giving rise to perception only elaborated in the brain? He reported that young dogs and rabbits with ablation of the hemispheres, the striatum, the optic layer, and the upper part of the brain stem until the upper limit of the pons perceived painful stimulations and specifically reacted to them. Professeur Charcot, Paris, Doin, When the mesencephalon is intact, as well as the optic layers, mammals and birds without hemispheres showed evidence of sensations related to impulses from the other sense organs, i.
For Longet and Vulpian, these sensations are perceived even though the brain is removed. What is the function of the sensations remaining after hemispheric ablation? To give just a few examples: the eye blink reflex in the presence Vulpian was puzzled, however, by the fact that spontaneous move- ments, centrally organized, could be observed in animals deprived of their cerebral lobes or hemispheres.
Many automatisms depend on the integrity of the bulbo-spinal level and of the pons respiration, locomotion, and learned components that are also present, especially in humans. In birds, such as the pigeon, when thrown into the air, flying movements which are maintained Prochazka, F. Clarac, G. Loeb, J. Rothwell and J.
Still more complex behaviours are observed after ablations restricted to the cerebral lobes in birds: at times they show a cleaning behaviour, using their bill to clean their feathers; at other times they place their heads under a wing, as they normally do when going to sleep. These last behaviours are not intentional, but resemble natural behaviours specific to the species, and probably belong to instincts. He made a distinction between instincts and habits.
For him, habits to which there is an innate tendency are called instincts. The young animal shows by the clumsiness of its movements that it has not yet acquired to master muscular functions yet, while the gymnast and the expert pianist perform wonders of agility, force, precision, the effort of will that they display not seeming to be proportional to the result achieved. Several physiologists think, and we agree with them, that there exists in the brain and in the spinal cord centres of nervous actions which as a consequence of habit acquire given assignments.
They succeed in controlling and coordinating given groups of movements without full participation of the part of the brain which governs the reasoning and consciousness of our acts. Where are the habits organized? One important aspect of building new habits is to inhibit some inborn coordination. James Taylor, Basic Books Inc. Involuntary and voluntary movements: mostly common views … region. Interesting information on the localization of secondary automatism or habits was also provided by the examination of neurological patients.
This indicates that the central nervous support for the same movements is different when being performed in a voluntary or in an automatic way secondary automatism, habit. For Flourens , instinct is a species-specific function. Instincts are innate: the beaver builds its lodge without any learning, driven by an irresistible force.
His capacity to build a lodge cannot be used for other tasks. Field ed. Flourens, op. However, he accepts the idea that the performance of the instinctive act also calls, in some cases, for adapta- tive learned components, such as the adaptation of the construction of the nest to the support context. The late development of comparative ethology with Konrad Lorenz and Nikolaas Tinbergen has confirmed the innate origin of most instinctive behaviours, but also the possibility of some learned components as well, included within the genetic framework. This is also the case for instincts related to species reproduction.
For Vulpian, the strong suction of the newborn baby seen at birth in mammals and especially in humans at a time when volition is not yet elaborated is in favour of this view. See I. He defended his doctoral dissertation shortly after his return to Moscow How did Sechenov discover central inhibition?
In , he spent six weeks in Paris, in the laboratory of Claude Bernard. By contrast, the inhibition of the reaction was produced by the stimulation crystal of salt, electrical of the surface of the sectioned brain stem. Roger Smith interestingly analyzed his discovery of a central inhibition in his book on inhibition. Stuart, A. Schaefer, J. Massion, B. Graham and R. Ivan M. Sirotkina eds. Smith, Inhibition. The processes of reflexes and of central inhibition took a central part in his demonstration which aimed at providing a physiological basis to explain the physiological mechanisms which transform the machine-like character of the reflex response a given stimulus always produces the same response into an either enhanced or inhibited response.
His book was conceived as a dialog with the reader, using a familiar approach of the problems of the reflex organisation, with examples taken from the daily experience of the ordinary reader. It had a considerable influence in Russia, where his materialist approach was controversial with respect to the conservative approach of most political authorities and of the Orthodox Church.
In contrast, the international audience of the book was less important. The first French translation appeared in and the first English translation only appeared in , edited by the Foreign languages publishing house in Moscow, then in by the MIT Press. If the cutaneous stim- ulation increases, the movement also increases in amplitude in the same limb or extend to other limbs.
Smith, op. Involuntary and voluntary movements: mostly common views … When the brain is intact, there are two additional superimposed central mechanisms, one inhibitory, the other excitatory, which are put into action by the sensory afferents or by the influence of the hemispheres and act on the spinal level fig. When repeated, the reflex response is progressively reduced and often disap- pears. Schema of the be exaggerated as for example in presence central organization of of fright: in an intact frog, a slight touch reflexes, and their inhibition of the skin induces a reaction of fright and augmentation from the with generalized movements.
Fright, MIT Press, These reactions are suppressed after a hemispheric ablation.
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P, inhibitory centre; N, excitatory centre; A, hemispheres. Sechenov, Reflexes of the Brain, op. Since it belongs to the category of movements which are acquired by habit and learning, i. His view encountered several criticisms. Involuntary and voluntary movements: mostly common views … at the irritating agent, which was repeated two or three times; and 5 when a decapitated frog underwent a spinal hemi-section a few millimetres below the emergence of the brachial nerves, the result was an increase of the ipsilateral hind limb reflex action.
It can be noted, however, that Vulpian did not review the subsequent work of Sechenov in which he also found spinal inhibition and a clear role for sensory input in evoking central inhibition. They accept the idea that besides inborn automatisms, there are other aspects of involuntary movements such as learned habits or secondary automatisms being acquired by many repetitions of voluntary move- ments, performed once learned, without the full control of the will, and thus belonging to the category of unvoluntary movements.
Both also agree on the fact that instinct represents a special category of movements, which are at least partly independent of the hemisphere, and thus represent also a kind of involuntary movements. They diverge on two aspects. For Vulpian, in the absence of the hemispheres, there occur sensitivo-motor reactions to nociceptive Sechenov, ; Sechenov and Paschutin, ; Sechenov, see complete references in D. Sechenov does not mention this.
The second difference, which is a major one, is the discovery by Sechenov of central inhibition. There are two superimposed reflexes in each reflex action: a basic reflex, which is stable, a given stimulus always producing the same response, and a superimposed excitatory or inhibitory reflex, which enhances or reduces the basic one, as a function of psychical factors.
For Vulpian, as for Flourens, voluntary movements depend on the integrity of the hemispheres. They both insist on the fact that inten- tional spontaneous activities are characteristic of the intact hemispheres. Voluntary movements, for Vulpian, only originate from the hemi- spheres. Vulpian quoted Once activated, the substance has the marvellous faculty to evoke the ideas previously formed therein with their reciprocal relations and then all processes of cerebral innervations may be developed, activated, oriented by innate dispositions, and by habits imprinted by education.
He criticizes this theory which, according to him, has no physiological basis. He followed Flourens in his conclusion against localisation, based on his experiments with pigeons. With progressive lesion of the cerebral lobes, not one but all faculties were abolished at once. He never- theless mentions the observations by Paul Broca in on aphasia indicating the localisation of language in the third frontal circonvolution on the left side. Gall and J. Schoell et H. Nicole, He agreed that the paralysis after a localized cortical lesion was an important sign of the localization of lesions.
For Sechenov, at the origin of the psychical act there is a representa- tion of the external world an idea based on the acquisition since childhood of multiple representations which are formed independently from the will, as the result of a repetition of chains of involuntary reflexes based on visual, tactile, auditory, proprioceptive, etc. See F. Clarac, J. Massion and A. See C. Involuntary and voluntary movements: mostly common views … He insists on the process of the construction of multiple representations by the repetition of sequences of reflexes.
Memory is the site where the partial representation of images, sound, and movements are stored after many repetitions, and recomposed without external substrate. Thinking is the faculty of recomposing the images and sounds in the absence of external substrate. The association of these concrete partial representations of objects lead to a subjective consciousness after learning.
The voluntary movement can be reduced or prevented by inhibitory reflexes, as was already described for the involuntary movement. As a consequence, many psychic reflexes are not concluded by a voluntary movement even if the desire which includes affectivity is present. In this situation the process of thinking lasts as long as the voluntary movement is prevented. The prevention of the voluntary movement is influenced by fear and also by education and the high moral values associated with it.
At the opposite, the movement can be intensified only within certain limits by emotional factors. The choice of one of the many possible ends of the same psychical reflex is absolutely impossible. Such basic ideas have surely influenced Vulpian and Sechenov giving them a common scientific background. Vulpian was not so affirmative but considered the brain as a whole following Flourens in his conclusion against localisation. Conducted independently, their experiments revealed the strong scientific interactions through European physiological institutions, particularly between France and Russia, and the high level of engaged efforts to find reliable physiological indica- tors of cerebral functioning.
Before considering the French-Russian contribution to the discovery of the EDA, we will recall, below, some characteristics underlying this physiological activity. The electrodermal activity The EDA is the electrical expression of the activity developed by the eccrine sweat glands, mainly located in deep layers of palmar and plantar skin.
These glands are under the exclusive control of the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system. Through the sympathetic control, sweat production and consequent EDA variations express activations produced by brain areas. EDA thus reveals high functions subtended by the brain functioning, a sort of body window allowing access to the mind space.
The amplitude of SCRs is strongly sensitive to activations generated by the central nervous system and transmitted to eccrine sweat glands by sympathetic fibers. Consequently, SCRs characteristics reveal mind functions requiring central activations like attention, action, memory or emotion. In this frame, SCRs are now recognized as a good marker of the cerebral impact of emotion on the body.
Indeed, during emotional stimulation, SCRs amplitude increases with the subjective assessment of the emotional activation of the stimulus, regardless of emotional valence. For this reason, that measure constitutes one of the best physiological windows of brain activity, subtending such information. Indeed, for more than a century, the EDA has been used as a tentative neural index of cognitive and emotional functions in healthy and pathological groups.
Fowles, M. Christie, R. Edelberg, W. Grings, D. Lykken and P. Lang, M. Greenwald, M. Bradley and A. Bradley and P. Lane and L. Nadel eds. Sequeira, P. Hot, L. Silvert and S. The electrodermal activity 2. He explained this phenomenon as corresponding to muscle action potentials. On the basis of this experimental paradigm, Hermann, for the first time, proposed the implication of sweat glands to explain variations of skin currents. In fact, such currents were classically considered as the result of muscular or vascular activities, which could be modulated by the autonomic control of blood flow.
Hermannand and B. Concomitantly, there were significant scientific progresses related to the physiology of emotions. Firstly, there was an increasing transfer of electrical phenomena knowledge from the physics to the physiology, giving rise to a new discipline, the electrophysiology, which became an essential tool for early physiological and psychophysiological explorations.
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Secondly, at the same time, Bernard was looking for physiology of emotions, through researches about the auto- nomic nervous system. The electrodermal activity generate mental disorders like hysteria. Consequently, it was necessary to find objective markers revealing the mental impact of emotions and, finally, to be able to classify different types of patients.
The second idea was based on the belief that electrophysi- ological techniques could be used as interesting means for diagnosis and therapeutics. Indeed, he considered that there was no need of statistical procedures because clinical facts present a high degree of variability and are inherent to individuals and specific circumstances.
For instance, his name appears in the scientific literature written as thirteen different forms. Some years later , Tarchanoff became the successor of Cyon at the Chair of Physiology of the University In next years his scientific interests became more focused on human physiology heart rate, etc. In the same vein, he chose sensory hot or cold water, pain, audition, cry, taste, olfaction… and mental calculations, fear, joy … stimulations, applied during experiments.
In addition, given references are mainly related to German authors e. In this context, emotional states were analyzed inside the frame of social consequences of health and electrical variations of skin henceforth considered as having a potential interest for clinical purposes. This communication closes the cycle of the methodo- logical discovery of the EDA and Tarchanoff followed other scientific orientations.
Thus, except a communication at the International Congress of Medicine , Roma , related to music influences on skin electrical variations, Tarchanoff pursued known research activities in several topics e. Finally, although Tarchanoff initiated a major technical knowledge for the future of the electrodermal recordings, this contribution was just a step in his scientific career.
The electrodermal activity 1. Rebirth of electrical variations of skin… as the Psychogalvanic reflex The period open new avenues for the knowledge and applications of electrical variations of the skin. This is due to the contribution of several authors: Mueller, Veraguth, Jung and Peterson. The diversity of methods to record electrical skin variations led to a confused way to name these variations. Peterson and C. Veraguth, op. These techniques allow to record electric variations of the skin induced by an external voltage applied to the skin surface.
The SC is the most used method for recording electrodermal measures fig. Considering several physical principles and advantages and disadvantages of the various recording techniques, the SC became the international recog- nized method for recording EDA. Consequently, despite their technical simplicity, SP recordings are rarely used, excepting in studies with specific methodological purposes. Fowles et al.
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Sequeira, S. In b and c, broken lines indicate standard positions of electrodes, in real experimental conditions. Iconographic adaptation from experimental apparatus of Kobayashi, Mandai and Sequeira at Ashikaga Institute of Technology Japan , In fact, in early days of EDA, three main influences can be considered: experimental rulers, initiated in German laboratories; clinical applications, emerging from French positions to deal with mental health and, finally, American psychologists looking for new methods.
These influences are also the expression of theoretical or technical information coming from physics, physiology, mental medicine, psychology and even spiritis. This corresponds to the need to explain normal emotional processes in normal individuals and the role of EDA as a potential indicator of emotional vulnerability in mental disorders. The first important point is related to the discovery of neural mechanisms subtending EDA central control. In this frame, animal research developed at the University of Lille represents a strong and significant input revealing main neural structures implicated in the excitatory and inhibitory command of electrodermal responses.
Miossec, M. Catteau, E. Roy, H. Sequeira and D. Sequeira et al. Lassonde, O. Collignon, A. Dubarry, A. Robert, S. Rigoulot, J. Lepore and H. Kosonogov, L. De Zorzi, J. Delbarre, J. Nandrino, J. Martinez-Selva and H. Damasio, D. Tranel and H. Amiez, E.
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