Left ventricular cardiac output. Left ventricular end-diastolic volume. Left ventricular ejection fraction. Left ventricular end-systolic volume. Left ventricular mass. Left ventricular stroke volume. Mean contour distance. Right atrium. Right ventricle. Right ventricular cardiac output. Right ventricular end-diastolic volume.puncdabmacoti.ga/3531-conocer-a-gente.php
A Song of Ice and Fire - Wikipedia
Right ventricular ejection fraction. Right ventricular end-systolic volume. Right ventricular stroke volume. The authors wish to thank all UK Biobank participants and staff. Researchers can apply to use the UK Biobank data resource for health-related research in the public interest [ 34 ]. The code is used for data format conversion, pre-processing, segmentation network training, testing and clinical measure calculation.
All authors read and approved the manuscript. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Research Open Access. Automated cardiovascular magnetic resonance image analysis with fully convolutional networks. Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance 20 Abstract Background Cardiovascular resonance CMR imaging is a standard imaging modality for assessing cardiovascular diseases CVDs , the leading cause of death globally.
Methods Deep neural networks have shown a great potential in image pattern recognition and segmentation for a variety of tasks. Conclusions We show that an automated method achieves a performance on par with human experts in analysing CMR images and deriving clinically relevant measures. CMR image analysis Fully convolutional networks Machine learning. Dataset The dataset consists of short-axis and long-axis cine CMR images of 5, subjects Automated image analysis For automated CMR image analysis, we utilise a fully convolutional network FCN architecture, which is a type of neural network that can predict a pixelwise image segmentation by applying a number of convolutional filters onto an input image [ 19 ].
The network architecture is illustrated in Fig. The FCN learns image features from fine to coarse scales using convolutions and combines multi-scale features for predicting the label class at each pixel. The network is adapted from the VGG network [ 20 ] and it consists of a number of convolutional layers for extracting image features.
After every two or three convolutions, the feature map is downsampled by a factor of 2 so as to learn features at a more global scale. Feature maps learnt at different scales are upsampled to the original resolution using transposed convolutions 3 and the multi-scale feature maps are then concatenated. The segmentation is determined at each pixel by the label class with highest softmax probability.
The mean cross entropy between the probabilistic label map and the manually annotated label map is used as the loss function. Excluding the transposed convolutional layers, this network has in total 16 convolutional layers. This architecture is similar to the U-Net [ 21 ]. The main difference is that U-Net performs upsampling step by step. It iteratively upsamples the feature map at each scale by a factor of 2 and concatenates with the feature map at the next scale.
In contrast to this, the proposed network may be simpler on the upsampling path. It upsamples the feature map from each scale to the finest resolution in one go and then concatenates all of them. Table 1 The network architecture. It shows that automated segmentation agrees well with manual segmentation by a clinical expert at both ED and ES time frames.
The table shows a mean Dice value of 0. The mean contour distance is 1. The Hausdorff distance ranges from 3. Table 2 The Dice metric, mean contour distance MCD and Hausdorff distance HD between automated segmentation and manual segmentation for short-axis images.
As an additional qualitative assessment, two image analysts visually compared automated segmentation to manual segmentation for test subjects. For basal slices where the ventricular contours are more complex and thus more difficult to segment, the percentage of agreement is lower. For example, Analyst 1 scored that automated segmentation agrees well with manual segmentation for only When discrepancy occurs, however, automated segmentation performs similarly to manual segmentation. Analyst 1 scored that automated segmentation performs better for Table 4 Qualitative visual assessment of automated segmentation.
It shows that for the clinical measures, the computer-human difference is on par with the human-human difference. Table 5 The difference in clinical measures between automated segmentation and manual segmentation, as well between measurements by different human observers. The Bland-Altman plot is commonly used for analysing agreement and bias between two measurements.
The first column of the figure compares automated measurements to manual measurements on test subjects. These subjects were annotated by a group of eight observers and each subject was annotated only once by one observer. The first column shows that the mean difference is centred close to zero, which suggests that the automated measurement is almost unbiased relative to the group of observers.
Also, there is no evidence of bias over hearts of difference sizes or volumes. This indicates that individual observers may be biased.
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As the automated method is trained with annotations from multiple observers, it learns a consensus estimate across the group of observers and thus it may be less susceptible to biases. The mean Dice metric is 0. Table 6 The Dice metric, mean contour distance MCD and Hausdorff distance HD between automated segmentation and manual segmentation for long-axis image.
The mean and standard deviation in parenthesis are reported on a test set of subjects LA: left atrium, RA: right atrium. Table 7 The Dice metric and contour distance metrics between automated segmentation and manual segmentation for long-axis images, as well between segmentations by different human observers. The proposed automated method enables us to perform clinical studies on large-scale datasets.
The table shows that obesity is associated with increased ventricular volume and mass with statistical significance. This is consistent with a previous finding in [ 24 ], which was performed on a dataset of 54 subjects with manual segmentation. Now we can confirm the finding with automated analysis on a much larger dataset with 1, subjects.
Table 8 An exemplar study of cardiac function on large-scale datasets using automatically derived clinical measures. It shows that for these derived clinical measures, the computer-human difference is also comparable to the human-human difference. Table 9 The difference in derived clinical measures between automated segmentation and manual segmentation, as well between measurements by different human observers.
The four cases are respectively of heart failure, LV hypertrophy, dilated cardiomyopathy and abnormal RV. It shows that without any tuning, the network performs well for Cases 1 and 3, but fails for Cases 2 and 4. This is probably because the image patterns or intensity distributions in Cases 2 and 4 are not covered by UK Biobank. Previous studies on LVSC may report the Dice metric for good contours only with distance error less than 5mm [ 33 ].
Availability of data and materials The imaging data and manual annotations were provided by the UK Biobank Resource under Application Number Consent for publication Not applicable. Competing interests S. References World Health Organisation. Cardiovascular diseases CVDs fact sheet. Accessed 11 July Ripley DP, et al. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging: what the general cardiologist should know. ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure Eur J Heart Fail.
Google Scholar He K, et al. Delving deep into rectifiers: Surpassing human-level performance on ImageNet classification. In: International Conference on Computer Vision. Santiago: IEEE: Google Scholar Silver D, et al. Mastering the game of Go with deep neural networks and tree search. Dermatologist-level classification of skin cancer with deep neural networks. An artificial intelligence platform for the multihospital collaborative management of congenital cataracts. Nat Biomed Eng. A combined deep-learning and deformable-model approach to fully automatic segmentation of the left ventricle in cardiac MRI.
Med Image Anal. Combining deep learning and level set for the automated segmentation of the left ventricle of the heart from cardiac cine magnetic resonance.
Since the events on the Iron Islands were to have an impact in the book and could not be told with existing POV characters, Martin eventually introduced three new viewpoints. In , Martin was still optimistic that the fourth installment might be released in the last quarter of On one hand, Martin was unsatisfied with covering the events during the gap solely through flashbacks and internal retrospection. On the other hand, it was implausible to have nothing happen for five years.
Printing the book in "microtype on onion skin paper and giving each reader a magnifying glass" was also not an option for him. With the characters spread out across the world,  a friend suggested that Martin divide the story geographically into two volumes, of which A Feast for Crows would be the first. With around pages in manuscript length,  A Dance with Dragons was eventually published in July after six years of writing,  longer in page count and writing time than any of the preceding four novels. Martin believes the last two volumes of the series will be big books of manuscript pages each.
Automated cardiovascular magnetic resonance image analysis with fully convolutional networks
The Winds of Winter will resolve the cliffhangers from A Dance with Dragons early on and "will open with the two big battles that [the fifth book] was building up to, the battle in the ice and the battle [ And then take it from there. I've been telling you for 20 years that winter was coming. Winter is the time when things die, and cold and ice and darkness fill the world, so this is not going to be the happy feel-good that people may be hoping for.
Some of the characters [are] in very dark places. In , Martin gave three years as a realistic estimate for finishing the sixth book at a good pace,  but said ultimately the book "will be done when it's done",  acknowledging that his publication estimates had been too optimistic in the past. He also revealed there had been a previous deadline of October that he had considered achievable in May , and that in September he had still considered the end-of-year deadline achievable.
He further confirmed that some of the plot of the book might be revealed in the upcoming season of Game of Thrones. Martin is only firm about ending the series with the seventh novel "until I decide not to be firm". On the other hand, Martin noted the challenge to avoid a situation like the finale of the TV series Lost , which left some fans disappointed by deviating too far from their own theories and desires. This included the end stories for all the core characters. Deviations from the books' storylines were considered, but a two-year hiatus to wait for new books was not an option for them as the child actors continue to grow and the show's popularity would wane.
Regarding A Song of Ice and Fire as his Masterpiece, Martin is certain never to write anything on this scale again and would only return to this fictional universe in the context of stand-alone novels. Martin believes the most profound influences to be the ones experienced in childhood. Lovecraft , Robert E. Howard , Robert A.
Heinlein , Eric Frank Russell , Andre Norton ,  Isaac Asimov ,  Fritz Leiber , and Mervyn Peake  in his youth, Martin never categorized these authors' literature into science fiction, fantasy, or horror and will write from any genre as a result. Martin experienced some harsh winters when living in Dubuque a few years in the 70s, and suspects these winters had an influence on his writing; "I think a lot of the stuff in A Game of Thrones, the snow and ice and freezing, comes from my memories of Dubuque".
The medieval setting has been the traditional background for epic fantasy. However, where historical fiction leaves versed readers knowing the historical outcome,  original characters may increase suspense and empathy for the readers. Martin is widely credited with broadening the fantasy fiction genre for adult content, including incest, paedophilia, and adultery.
Setting out to write something on an epic scale,  Martin projected to write three books of manuscript pages in the very early stages of the series. Martin said he needed to be in his own office in Santa Fe, New Mexico to immerse himself in the fictional world and write. Martin drew much inspiration from actual history for the series,  having several bookcases filled with medieval history for research  and visiting historic European landmarks. The story is written to follow principal landmarks with an ultimate destination, but leaves Martin room for improvisation.
On occasion, improvised details significantly affected the planned story. For instance, Martin has inconsistently referred to certain characters' eye colors, and has described a horse as being of one sex and then another. The books are divided into chapters, each one narrated in the third person limited through the eyes of a point of view character,  an approach Martin learned himself as a young journalism student.
The short-lived one-time POV characters are mostly restricted to the prologues and epilogues. Modeled on The Lord of the Rings , the story of A Song of Ice and Fire begins with a tight focus on a small group with everyone in Winterfell , except Daenerys and then splits into separate stories. The storylines are to converge again, but finding the turning point in this complex series has been difficult for Martin and has slowed down his writing.
Depending on the interview, Martin is said to have reached the turning point in A Dance with Dragons ,  or to not quite have reached it yet in the books. The chapters are later rearranged to optimize character intercutting, chronology, and suspense. Influenced by his television and film scripting background, Martin tries to keep readers engrossed by ending each A Song of Ice and Fire chapter with a tense or revelational moment, a twist or a cliffhanger , similar to a TV act break.
Each book shall represent a phase of the journey that ends in closure for most characters. A smaller portion of characters is left with clear-cut cliffhangers to make sure readers come back for the next installment, although A Dance with Dragons had more cliffhangers than Martin originally intended. The unresolved larger narrative arc encourages speculation about future story events. Regarding the characters as the heart of the story,  Martin planned the epic A Song of Ice and Fire to have a large cast of characters and many different settings from the beginning.
However, their backstory remains subject to change until written down in the story. Martin deliberately ignored the writing rule of never giving two characters names starting with the same letter. Henry V of England. The family names were designed in association with ethnic groups see backstory : the First Men in the North of Westeros had very simply descriptive names like Stark and Strong, whereas the descendants of the Andal invaders in the South have more elaborate, undescriptive house names like Lannister or Arryn, and the Targaryens and Valyrians from the Eastern continent have the most exotic names with the letter Y.
All characters are designed to speak with their own internal voices to capture their views of the world. He returns to the intended story if it does not work out, but these detours sometimes prove more rewarding for him. As the character most deeply involved in magic, Bran's story needs to be handled carefully within the supernatural aspects of the books.
Bran is also the youngest viewpoint character,  and has to deal with the series' adult themes like grief, loneliness, and anger. Martin hoped the planned five-year break would ease the situation and age the children to almost adults in terms of the Seven Kingdoms, but he later dropped the five-year gap see section Bridging the timeline gap. Although modern fantasy may often embrace strangeness, A Song of Ice and Fire series is generally praised for what is perceived as a sort of medieval realism. A common theme in the fantasy genre is the battle between good and evil ,  which Martin rejects for not mirroring the real world.
Although fantasy comes from an imaginative realm, Martin sees an honest necessity to reflect the real world where people die sometimes ugly deaths, even beloved people. According to Martin, the fantasy genre rarely focuses on sex and sexuality,  instead often treating sexuality in a juvenile way or neglecting it completely. Martin provides a variety of female characters to explore the place of women in a patriarchal society. Science Fiction Weekly stated in that "few would dispute that Martin's most monumental achievement to date has been the groundbreaking A Song of Ice and Fire historical fantasy series",  for which reviews have been "orders of magnitude better" than for his previous works, as Martin described to The New Yorker.
Martin earned his following the hard way, by word of mouth, by hooking his characters into the psyche of his readers to an extent that most writers of fantasy only dream of. Publishers Weekly noted in that "Martin may not rival Tolkien or Robert Jordan , but he ranks with such accomplished medievalists of fantasy as Poul Anderson and Gordon Dickson. Martin their Author of the Year The slim pickings here are tasty, but in no way satisfying.
According to the Los Angeles Times , "Martin's brilliance in evoking atmosphere through description is an enduring hallmark of his fiction, the settings much more than just props on a painted stage", and the novels captivate readers with "complex storylines, fascinating characters, great dialogue, perfect pacing, and the willingness to kill off even his major characters".
Every town has an elaborately recalled series of triumphs and troubles. At the end, I felt shaken and exhausted. If you pay attention, you will be rewarded and questions will be answered. Jordison detailed his misgivings about A Game of Thrones in a review and summarized "It's daft. It's unsophisticated. It's cartoonish. And yet, I couldn't stop reading Archaic absurdity aside, Martin's writing is excellent.
His dialogue is snappy and frequently funny. His descriptive prose is immediate and atmospheric, especially when it comes to building a sense of deliciously dark foreboding [of the long impending winter]. That when things are, on the whole, pretty crappy [in the real world], it's a deep joy to dive headfirst into something so completely immersive, something from which there is no need to surface from hours at a time. And if that immersion involves dragons, magic, wraiths from beyond death, shapeshifting wolves and banished princes, so be it. The reported overall sales figures of the A Song of Ice and Fire series vary.
Martin's publishers initially expected A Game of Thrones to be a best-seller,  but the first installment did not even reach any lower positions in bestseller list. The series gained Martin's old writings new attention, and Martin's American publisher Bantam Spectra was to reprint his out-of-print solo novels. The fourth installment, A Feast for Crows , was an immediate best-seller at its release,  hitting number one on "The New York Times" hardcover fiction bestseller list November 27, , which for a fantasy novel suggested that Martin's books were attracting mainstream readers.
Bantam was looking forward to seeing the tie-ins boost sales further,  and Martin's British publisher Harper Voyager expected readers to rediscover their other epic fantasy literature. At its point of publication in July , A Dance with Dragons was in its sixth print with more than , hardbacks in print. The TV series has contributed significantly boosting sales of both the books and collectibles like box-sets, merchandise, and other items. The TV series also contributed in increasing the geographic coverage of the books, introducing new customers in emerging countries like India and Brazil to the book series.
All this has significantly increased the overall book sales. During the s and early s, Martin's novels had slowly earned him a reputation in science fiction circles,  although he said to only have received a few fans' letters a year in the pre-internet days. Their founders and other longtime members are among Martin's good friends. Martin runs an official website  and administers a lively blog with the assistance of Ty Franck. Martin on his blog in . While Martin calls the majority of his fans "great", and enjoys interacting with them,  some of them turned against him because of the six years it took to release A Dance with Dragons.
Few contemporary authors can claim to have inspired such passion. Martin has written several prequel novellas. The Tales of Dunk and Egg series, three novellas set 90 years before the events of the novel series, feature the adventures of Ser Duncan the Tall and his squire "Egg", who later became King Aegon V Targaryen. The first installment, The Hedge Knight , was published in the anthology Legends. The novella The Princess and the Queen or, the Blacks and the Greens appeared in Tor Books 's anthology Dangerous Women and explains some of the Targaryen backstory two centuries before the events of the novels.
All three of these stories were incorporated as parts of Fire and Blood , a book chronicling the history of the Targaryen line. Chapter sets from the novels were also compiled into three novellas that were released between and by Asimov's Science Fiction and Dragon :. The first volume was released on November 20, The network picked up the show for a second season covering A Clash of Kings two days later.
Shortly after the season 3 premiere in March , the network announced that Game of Thrones would be returning for a fourth season, which would cover the second half of A Storm of Swords along with the beginnings of A Feast for Crows and A Dance With Dragons. The eighth and final season premiered on April 14, A Song of Ice and Fire has spawned an industry of spin-off products.
Fantasy Flight Games released a collectible card game , a board game , and two collections of artwork inspired by A Song of Ice and Fire series. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Series of epic fantasy novels by George R. I was It didn't belong in the novel I was writing, but it came to me so vividly that I had to sit down and write it, and by the time I did, it led to a second chapter, and the second chapter was the Catelyn chapter where Ned has just come back.
Main article: The Winds of Winter. Above all, the books were extremely unpredictable, especially in a genre where readers have come to expect the intensely predictable. Main article: A Song of Ice and Fire fandom. Okay, I've got the message. You don't want me doing anything except A Song of Ice and Fire. Well, maybe it's okay if I take a leak once in a while? Main article: Game of Thrones. The Guardian. Archived from the original on April 9, Retrieved January 21, Retrieved April 6, The Times of Israel. Retrieved May 31, They struck gold, however, with their next attempt: a television series based on a French fantasy series which in turn was based on a seven-part set of stories by a French Jewish immigrant.
Maurice Druon was born in France in to Jewish immigrants from Russia and first made a name for himself in the realm of academic journals. The Independent. April 15, Retrieved April 28, Retrieved October 2, Not A Blog. Retrieved February 18, The New York Times. Archived from the original on April 23, Retrieved May 2, Retrieved July 14, Archived from the original on February 15, Retrieved October 18, Publishers Weekly. July 29, Archived from the original on October 21, Retrieved February 13, AR BookFinder. Retrieved November 28, February 1, Archived from the original on June 10, October 30, Archived from the original on February 9, October 3, Archived from the original on March 26, May 30, Archived from the original on January 14, The Atlantic.
YEs Intro: No one knows how long it has been since the turn of the Dark Age, though accounts differ from one Tribal leader's story to another. I have mixed feelings about this book. Will I read Vol. Yes I will. What I did like were the people that were introduced in Vol. I also liked that the book had action as well as fantasy animals and such. And I like Crazy John, Boris and the leader.
It was really the history of the place about it that seemed long. It dragged a little and I caught myself skimming a few places and went back to read the history. I was given this book to read and give an honest review. This review is my honest opinion and I have fully read this book. I really enjoyed the way this book was written, it had comedy in it as well as dark moments that really made you feel the characters feelings. All the characters were well fleshed out and had flaws, I of course liked Maledream kind of a free spirit explorer but his sense of duty to Angelite was a nice counterbalance.
The world was built very well but not too overly detail as to be stuffy as some books tend to be. But what I really liked was the resonance itself I won't explain too much but the w I really enjoyed the way this book was written, it had comedy in it as well as dark moments that really made you feel the characters feelings.
But what I really liked was the resonance itself I won't explain too much but the way to use it and the possibilities of it are just slightly explored giving room for the next two installments in a very good series to expand. One thing I really liked was the flashbacks that really gave the history of the land itself. Really looking forward to more adventures. Jan 27, James Irvine rated it it was amazing.
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The characters, the story line thought out very well, amazing imagery. Jul 03, Richard rated it liked it. Edit 01Aug I should point out that my rating and review is based on edition 2. The latest version has had many corrections. This review therefore may not be relevant when compared to the current edition. Original review from 03Jul follows. While I liked the premise, and the story, I really disliked the authors style of writing - I don't think I've ever been so frustrated by a book's writing. Some of it Edit 01Aug Some of it is hard to pin down - as an example it seemed a lot of the text and dialogue was awkwardly constructed.
Some of the sentences didn't even make sense probably like this review! No doubt I'm being unfair - I doubt I could write a book if I tried - but I was constantly infuriated by the text from one moment to the next. However, I did enjoy the premise of the story and so I'll probably pick up the next book in the series. Amy Ware rated it liked it Apr 14, Katie Marie rated it it was amazing Jun 15, Jett Cat rated it really liked it Jul 04, Karen Parker rated it it was ok Aug 27, Tope rated it it was amazing Nov 11, Jeremy Crozier rated it liked it Aug 09,
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