Biotechnology - Bioengineering - Human health and pathology - Engineering Sciences. Food and Nutrition - Agriculture, economy and politics - Agronomy - Animal production studies - Zootechny. Ethics - Human health and pathology - Humanities and Social Sciences. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition - Image Processing - Materials - Mechanics of materials - Materials and structures in mechanics - Mechanics of the solides - Mechanics of the structures.
Education - Business administration - Library and information sciences. Humanities and Social Sciences - Literature - Musicology and performing arts. Lorsque des dynamiques de croissance cohabitent avec des situations de crise. Architecture, space management - Geography - Political science - Sociology. Materials - Mechanics of materials - Materials and structures in mechanics. Mechanical engineering - Mechanics of materials - Materials and structures in mechanics - Mechanics of the solides - Mechanics of the structures - Vibrations.
Social Anthropology and ethnology - Library and information sciences - Religions - Political science - Sociology. Economies and finances - Business administration - Political science. Neurons and Cognition - Psychology and behavior - Cognitive Sciences. Architecture, space management - Environmental studies - Geography. Cognitive science - Computer science - Linguistics - Neuroscience - Psychology. What do they unveil and hide in the case of Brussels?
Ecology, environment - Agricultural sciences - Agriculture, economy and politics - Horticulture - Soil study - Silviculture, forestry - Animal production studies - Sciences and technics of agriculture - Sciences and technics of fishery. Architecture, space management - Art and art history - History - Literature - Cultural heritage and museology. Humanities and Social Sciences - Library and information sciences - Sociology.see
Law - Economies and finances - Business administration - Psychology - Sociology - Methods and statistics. Enjeux sociaux, analyses critiques et perspectives scientifiques. Computer Science - Education - Library and information sciences - Psychology. Social Anthropology and ethnology - History - Political science - Sociology. You want to introduce yourself to him, tell him your name, and ask "What's up? Comment vous appelez-vous? Et vous? Monsieur Bernard Moi, je suis Marc Bernard.
I I is not capitalized in French unless, of course, beginning a sentence 2. Nice to meet you lit. G: Vous vs. English doesn't have a singular and plural, formal version of "you" although "thou" used to be the informal arguably archaic singular version in the days of Shakespeare. In French, it is important to know when to use "vous" and when to use "tu". This is somewhat equivalent to "y'all", "youse", "you guys", "all of you", except that it is much more formal than all but the last example.
It is used in occasions when talking to someone who is important, someone who is older than you are, or someone you are unfamiliar with. This is known as w:Vouvoiement. Note the conversation between M. Bernard and M. Lambert above as an example of this use. Conversely, "tu" is the singular and informal form of "vous" you in French. It is commonly used when referring to a friend and a family member, and also used between children or when addressing a child.
If it is used when speaking to a stranger, it signals disrespect. This is known as w:Tutoiement. As a rule of thumb, use "tu" only when you would call that person by his first name, otherwise use "vous". French people will make it known when they would like you to refer to them by "tu". Lit: If you please. Thanks a lot Merci beaucoup. De rien. Lit: Of nothing. Lit: Not of what. No Pas de quoi. You're welcome. Je t'en prie. Plural Messieurs. Singular Madame mahdamn Mrs. Formal Lesson - Titles The titles monsieur, madame, and mademoiselle are almost always used alone, without the last name of the person.
When beginning to speak to a professor, employer, or generally someone older than you, it is polite to say monsieur, madame, or mademoiselle. What is your name? Je m'appelle My name is I call myself Je suis V: How are you? Comment allez-vous? Yes, it goes. Very well, thanks. Pas mal. I'm sorry. Then go back to the vocabulary and learn other ways. Salut, Michel! Allez-vous bien? Michel Bonjour, Jacques. Au revoir. Jacques Salut, Michel! The phrase literally means It goes? A more formal way to say this is Comment allez-vous?. Bien is preceded by certain adverbs to specify the degree to which you are well.
The adverb mal is used to say badly. Pas is commonly added to mal to form Pas mal. To be polite, add merci, meaning thank you to responses to questions. Check for understanding Pretend to have or actually have a verbal conversation with various people that you know, such as siblings, friends, children, teachers, coworkers, or heads of state. Address them in different ways, depending on their relation to you. Ask them how they are doing, and finally say goodbye.
For instance, in Switzerland and Belgium, seventy is "septante," 71 is "septante et un," 72 "septante deux," and so on. Ninety is "nonante". In Switzerland, Eighty is "huitante" or "octante". V: Mathematics. Toto is an imaginary person that is a dunce at school. There are a lot of funny stories about Toto, one day I will tell you one of them!
Combien font huit plus six? Et combien font cinq plus neuf? Today is [day]. Tomorrow is what 2a Demain c'est quel jour? Duhman on ay kell jzoor day? Tomorrow is [day]. C'est le [ ] [month]. It's [month] [ ]. It is [number] hours. What time is it? Il est une heure. Il est trois heures. Il est dix heures. Il est midi. It is noon. Il est minuit. It is midnight. Il est quatre heures cinq.
It is five past four.
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Il est quatre heures et quart. It is a quarter past four. Il est quatre heures moins le It is a quarter till 4. It is four fifteen. Il est quatre heures et demie. It is half past four. Il est quatre heures trente. It is four thirty. Il est cinq heures moins vingt. It is twenty to five. Il est quatre heures quarante. It is four forty. It's going very well merci thank you et toi? Aujourd'hui c'est quel 1a Today is what day?
Tomorrow is what 2a Demain c'est quel jour Duhman say kell jzoor day? Asking for the date. Quelle est la date What is the date 3a kell ay lah daht aujourd'hui? Asking for the time. Il est quatre heures quinze. V: The days of the week. Comment vas-tu? How are you?
And you, it goes fine? It goes well. You're coming to my party? I'm organizing a little party. C'est quand? Daniel March 3rd at PM. March 3rd, agreed. You're having it at your place? Oui c'est chez moi. On va danser toute la nuit. Daniel Yes, it's at my place. I have invited a set of twenty friends. We4 are going to dance all night. So long. Daniel Until tomorrow, good day. Its adjective equivalent is bon ne , which means good.
Since je vais, meaning I go, uses an action verb, the adjective bien is used.
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In English, I'm good, which uses the linking verb am, is followed by an adjective rather than an adverb. This is used in a similar manner to do in English. Instead of You want it? Est-ce que Chez moi is used to say at my place. Chez [name] is used to say at [name's] place. Le directeur Enter! Bonjour, monsieur le directeur. Est-ce que vous allez bien? Daniel Hello, Mr.
Are you well? Je vais bien merci. Et vous, comment allez-vous? Le directeur I am well, thank you. And you, how are you? Je vais bien. Je l'organiserais le 3 mars vers 14 h. Daniel I'm well. I want to ask you if it is possible to organize a party for my birthday. I would organize it the third of March around PM.
Le directeur And you want to organize it where? Daniel In the large conference room on the second floor. We would need it until PM, the time of cleaning everything. Le directeur Agreed! I hope that I would be invited? Merci Beaucoup! Daniel Of course! Thanks a lot! Au revoir! Le directeur Good-bye! Au revoir et encore merci! Daniel Good-bye and thanks again. If you haven't done so already, spend a few minutes to first read the course's introductory lessons. Once that's done, you're ready to begin your very first traditional French lesson!
After you have completed this level, you can move on to the next level. Finally, go to the lessons planning page if you would like to help improve this course. Lesson 1. The nouns that express entities without gender e. This form can be masculine or feminine. For example, la voiture the car can only be feminine; le stylo the pen can only be masculine. There are some nouns that express entities with gender for which there is only one form, which is used regardless of the actual gender of the entity, for example, the word for person; personne; is always feminine, even if the person is male, and the word for teacher; professeur; is always masculine even if the teacher is female.
Professeur can be shortened to prof. While the long form, professeur, is always masculine, even when referring to female teachers, prof can be either masculine or feminine. In this book, the definate article will come before a noun in vocabulary charts. If the definate article is l due to elision, m will follow a noun to denote a masculine gender and f will follow a noun to denote a feminine gender.
Unfortunately, there are many exceptions in French which can only be learned. There are even words that are spelled the same, but have a different meaning when masculine or feminine; for example, un livre m means a book, but une livre f means a pound! Some words that appear to be masculine like la photo, which is actually short for la photographie are in fact feminine, and vice versa. Then there are some that just don't make sense; la foi is feminine and means a belief, whereas le foie means liver.
To help overcome this hurdle which many beginners find very difficult, be sure to learn the genders along with the words. G: Definite and Indefinite Articles. Unlike English, the definite article is used to talk about something in a general sense, a general statement or feeling about an idea or thing. In French, the definite article is changed depending on the noun's: 1. Gender 2. Plurality 3. First letter of the word There are three definite articles and an abbreviation.
It is similar to english, where "a" changes to "an" before a vowel. The plural of most nouns is formed by adding an -s. However, the -s ending is not pronounced. It is the article that tells the listener whether the noun is singular or plural. Fils: Most singular nouns do not end in -s. The -s is added for the plural form of the noun. Fils is one exception. Whenever the singular form of a noun ends in -s, there is no change in the plural form. Fils pronounced feece is also an exception to this rule.
When pronounced, the vowel sound is dropped. In English, the indefinite articles are "a" and "an". Again, indefinite articles in French take different forms depending on gender and plurality. The articles "Un" and "une" literally mean "one" in French. Remember that the last consonant of a word is typically not pronounced unless followed by a vowel.
Well when a word ending in a consonant is followed by a word beginning with a vowel sound, the consonant often becomes pronounced. This is a process called liaison. When a vowel goes directly after un, the normally unpronounced n sound becomes pronounced. Liaison also occurs with des.
Note that des, like les is used in French before plural nouns when no article is used in English. Let's imagine you are looking at photographs in an album. In English, we would say "I am looking at photographs. If you were looking at a set of specific pictures, you would say "Je regarde les photographies. To say What is it? You will be using Qu'est-ce que? Remember that the indefinate article un or une must agree with the noun it modifies. Il y a pronounced eel ee ah is used to say there is or there's and there are.
The phrase is used for both singular and plural nouns. The -s at the end of the most plural of most nouns tells you that the phrase is there are instead of there is. In spoken French, when both the singular and plural forms almost always sound the same, the article and perhaps other adjectives modifying the noun is used to distinguish between singular and plural versions.
You will soon learn that a is the present third person singular form of avoir, the verb meaing to have, and that y is a pronoun meaning there. The phrase il y a, then, literally translates to he has there. You will see this phrase used in all French tenses. It is important to remember that verb stays as a form of be and not have.
Like in English, il y a They are used to point out objects in front of you or in exclamatory sentences. Elle est de Marseille. G: Subject pronouns French has six different types of pronouns: the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd person singular and the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd person plural. The pronoun it does not exist in French. Il replaces all masculine nouns, even those that are not human. The same is true with elle and feminine nouns. In addition to the nuances between vous and tu, as discussed earlier, French pronouns carry meanings that do not exist in English pronouns.
The French third person "on" has several meanings, but most closely matches the now archaic English "one". Also, while the third person plural "they" has no gender in English, the French equivalents "ils" and "elles" do. However, when pronounced, they normally sound the same as "il" and "elle", so distinguishing the difference requires understanding of the various conjugations of the verbs following the pronoun.
Also, if a group of people consists of both males and females, the male form is used, even if there is only one male in a group of thousands of females. For more, see the Wikipedia entry. G: Introduction to Verbs A verb is a word that describes an action or mental or physical state. French verbs can be formed in four moods, each of which express a unique feeling. Each mood has a varying number of tenses, which indicate the time when an action takes place. In the next section, we will look at the conjugations in the present tense of the indicative mood, more commonly called the present indicative.
There is one conjugation for each of the six subject pronouns. In this book, the infinitive form of the verb will be used to identify it. In French, the infinitive is one word. For example, parler translates to to speak, finir translates to to finish, and aller translates to to go. French verbs conjugate, which means they take different shapes depending on the subject.
Most French verbs will conjugate into many different forms. Most verbs are regular, which means that they conjugate in the same way. The most common verbs, however, are irregular. It is an irregular verb, and is not conjugated like any other verb. I am a lawyer. Il est beau. He is handsome. They will become very useful in forming tenses. To respond poitevely, you say Oui, je suis d'accord. In English, one would say Okay. G: Cities and Nationalities To say what city you are from, you use the preposition de.
When stating your nationality or job, it is not necessary to include the article. This is an exception to the normal rule. There is both a masculine and feminine form of saying your nationality - for males and females respectively. In the next lesson, you will learn how to say the nationality of more than one person. Check for understanding Please use the the nationalities list to find out what your nationality is in French. Then say what city you are from and what nationality you are.
Then say what nationality some of your friends are, and what city they are from.
For example, Marie est italienne. Elle est de Rome. Generally, the final consonant is pronounced only when it comes before an -e. Most adjectives, such as those above, are affected by this rule. Adjectives that end in e in the masculine form do not change in gender. When an adjective, such as gros, ends in -s, it does not change in the masculine plural form. Sometimes the final consonant is doubled in the feminine form. Elle est petite. Ils sont petits. Elles sont petites. Il est moyen.
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Elle est moyenne. Ils sont moyens. Elles sont moyennes. Il est grand. Elle est grande. Ils sont grands. Elles sont grandes. Il est gros. Elle est grosse. Ils sont gros. Elles sont grosses. Elle est blonde. Ils sont blonds. Elles sont blondes. Il est brun. Elle est brune.
Ils sont bruns. Elles sont brunes. Elle est intelligente. Elles sont intelligentes. Il est amusant. Elle est amusante. Ils sont amusants. Elles sont amusantes. This process is called liaison. In this book, will will show that the sound is connected usung z. J'ai deux stylos. I have two pens. You have three brothers. He has an idea. Avoir is used to express age. The expression il y a means there is or there are. G: Direct Object Pronouns le, la, and les le, la, and les are called direct object pronouns, because they are pronouns that are, you guessed it, used as direct objects.
A direct object is a noun that is acted upon by a verb. In the above sentence la boule is the direct object. You have learned earlier that names and regular nouns can be replaced by the subject pronouns je, tu Similary, direct objects, such as "la boule", can be replaced by pronouns. Le, la, and les can replace either people or inanimate objects. To conjugate, drop the -er to find the "stem" or "root". Add endings to the root based on the subject and tense. In all conjugations, je changes to j ' when followed by a vowel.
Example: J'attends. Also, as a rule of thumb: h is considered a vowel; as in J'habite If a phrase is negative, ne changes to n'. In all plural forms, the s at the end of each subject pronoun, normally unpronounced, becomes a z sound and the n of on becomes pronounced when followed by a vowel. Common -er Verbs. The verb s'amuser means to have fun in English. It is a type of pronominal verb a verb that includes a pronoun as part of it called a reflexive verb, which means that the action of the verb is reflected back onto the subject.
Literally translated, the verb means I amuse myself. Like in English, some verbs can be followed by infinitives. When negating a sentence, remember that the negative goes around the conjugated verb. Besides the new vocabulary you should also have a look at how the verbs are conjugated depending on the subject of the sentence. What are you doing? You will learn their conjuagtion in a later lesson.
G: Indirect Object Pronouns lui and leur Indirect objects are prepositional phrases with the object of the preoposition An indirect object is a noun that receives the action of a verb. Lui and leur are indirect object pronouns. Whether lui means to him or to her is given by context. In English, "He throws him the ball" is also said, and means the same thing. When used with the direct object pronouns le, la, and les, lui and leur come after those pronouns.
Note that while le, la, and les are used to replace people or inanimate objects, lui and leur are not used to replace innanimate objects and things. It can be used to refer to both sports and instruments. As always, jouer must be conjugated rather than left in the infinitive. Partir is used in other phrases. You will learn how to conjugate these verbs in a future lesson. G: Faire The verb faire is translated to to do or to make. It is irregularly conjugated it does not count as a regular -re verb. Indirect Object Replacement. Exercises Try to describe your house or bedrooom using the vocabulary.
Don't forget prepositions. You may also wish to talk about what housework you do. Education et politique. Proche Orient entre la guerre et la paix. Paris, Epi, Castells, Manuel, Godard, Francis. Avec la collaboration de Vivian Balanowski. Paris, La Haye, Mouton, Catherine, Robert, Thuillier, Guy. Science administrative. Conscience et pouvoir.
Paris, Editions Montchrestien, Chouraqui, Alain. L'Informatique au service du droit. Les perspectives.
Clastres, Pierre. Recherches d'anthropologie politique. Les Editions de Minuit, Cohen Francis. Paris, Editions Sociales,. Essais de classement en fonction des combinaisons de capitaux. Centre de Sociologie Urbaine, Pour une sociologie politique. Paris, Editions du Seuil, Textes traduits par Bernadette Grandcolas.
Paris, Dunod, Debbasch, Charles. La France de Pompidou. Politique et pratique de Vethnocide. Bruxelles, Editions Complexe, Demichel, Francine. La Psychanalyse en politique. Dessinges, Michel, Levy, Alain. Les Ouvriers de la circonscription de Nancy I. Destefanis, Michel, Vasseur, Anne-Marie. Paris, Presses Universitiares de France, Djait, Hichem. Citoyens dans l'entreprise. Paris, Editions Resma, Doran, Charles F. XJmweltschutz- politik des peripheren Eingriffs. Demokratie und Rechtsstaat, La Sociotogie des migrations aux Etats-Unis.
Dumont, Fernand. Dxjpuy, Jean-Pierre, Karsenty, Serge. L'Invasion pharmaceutique. Duverger, Maurice. Paris, Robert Laffont, Easton, David. Traduction de Pierre Rocheron. Paris, Armand Colin, Economies The of Health and Medical Care. Edited by Mark Perlman. London, Macmillan, Ehrenzweig, Anton.
Essai sur la psychologie de l'imagination artistique. Paris, Gallimard Eisermann, Gottfried, Acquaviva, S. Der Einfluss des Fernsehens auf die Schule in der Gesellschaft von heute und morgen. Stuttgart, Ferdinand Enke, Elites and Power in British Society.
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Edited by Philip Stanworth and Anthony Giddens. London, Cambridge University Press, Women and Society. An Australian Study. Melbourne, Cheshire, Enfants Les de travailleurs migrants en Europe. Adaptation sociale. Evans-Pritchard, E. Failure of a Dream? Essays in the History of American Socialism. Edited by John H. Laslett and Seymour Martin Lipset. New York, Anchor Books, Filloux, Janine. Fordyce, Jack K. Paris, Les Editions d'Organisation, Free Way to Learning. Educational Alternatives in Action.
Edited by David Head. Paris, Centre de Sociologie Urbaine, Pays de l'Est. Frybourg, Michel.
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